A few days ago, the New York Times published an article by Laurie Goodstein titled http://www.nytimes.com/2006/09/06/us/06 … ref=sloginâ€ť target=â€ť_blankâ€ť>â€śZoroastrians Keep the Faith, and Keep Dwindling.â€ť It says nothing about Judaism, but the similarities between the issues the Zoroastrian community and the Jewish community relating to issues of intermarriage are uncanny. If you just replace the word Zoroastrian with Jewish and priest with rabbi, this article could be about the American Jewish community.
â€śWe were once at least 40, 50 millionâ€”can you imagine?â€ť said Mr. Antia, senior priest at the fire temple here in suburban Chicago. â€śAt one point we had reached the pinnacle of glory of the Persian Empire and had a beautiful religious philosophy that governed the Persian kings.
â€ťWhere are we now? Completely wiped out,â€ť he said. â€śIt pains me to say, in 100 years we wonâ€™t have many Zoroastrians.â€ť
There is a palpable panic among Zoroastrians todayâ€”not only in the United States, but also around the worldâ€”that they are fighting the extinction of their faith, a monotheistic religion that many scholars say is at least 3,000 years oldâ€¦
While Zoroastrians once dominated an area stretching from what is now Rome and Greece to India and Russia, their global population has dwindled to 190,000 at most, and perhaps as few as 124,000â€¦
â€ťSurvival has become a community obsession,â€ť said Dina McIntyre, an Indian-American lawyer in Chesapeake, Va., who has written and lectured widely on her religion.
The Zoroastriansâ€™ mobility and adaptability has contributed to their demographic crisis. They assimilate and intermarry, virtually disappearing into their adopted cultures. And since the faith encourages opportunities for women, many Zoroastrian women are working professionals who, like many other professional women, have few children or none.
Despite their shrinking numbers, Zoroastriansâ€¦ are divided over whether to accept intermarried families and converts and what defines a Zoroastrian. An effort to create a global organizing body fell apart two years ago after some priests accused the organizers of embracing â€śfake convertsâ€ť and diluting traditions.
â€ťThey feel that the religion is not universal and is ethnic in nature, and that it should be kept within the tribe,â€ť said Jehan Bagli, a retired chemist in Toronto who is a priest, or mobbed, and president of the North American Mobed Council, which includes about 100 priests. â€śThis is a tendency that to me sometime appears suicidal. And they are prepared to make that sacrifice.â€ť
Their obsession with survival, their mobility and adaptability, their conflict over what defines a Zoroastrianâ€”the similarities to the Jewish community are amazing. They become downright eerie as you continue to read:
â€¦the intermarriage rate in North America is now nearly 50 percent.
According to the 2000-01 National Jewish Population Survey, 47 percent of new marriages involving Jews were intermarriages. And the range of Zoroastriansâ€™ response to the their declining numbers is also quite similar to the spectrum of Jewish response to intermarriage:
Zoroastrians believe in free will, so in matters of religion they do not believe in compulsion. They do not proselytize.
Ferzin Patel, who runs a support group for 20 intermarried couples in New York, said that while the Zoroastrians in the group adored their faith and wanted to teach it to their children, they in no way wanted to compel their spouses to convert.
â€ťIn the intermarriage group, I donâ€™t think anyone feels that someone should forfeit their religion just for Zoroastrianism,â€ť Ms. Patel said.
Despite, or because of, the high intermarriage rate, some Zoroastrian priests refuse to accept converts or to perform initiation ceremonies for adopted children or the children of intermarried couples, especially when the father is not Zoroastrian. The ban on these practices is far stronger in India and Iran than in North America.
â€ťAs soon as you do it, you start diluting your ethnicity, and one generation has an intermarriage, and the next generation has more dilution and the customs become all fuzzy and they eventually disappear,â€ť said Jal N. Birdy, a priest in Corona, Calif., who will not perform weddings of mixed couples. â€śThat would destroy my community, which is why I wonâ€™t do it.â€ť
Goodstein concludes with an example of a woman who sounds like many of our readers and writers.
The peril and the hope for Zoroastrianism are embodied in a child of the diaspora, Rohena Elavia Ullal, 27, a physical therapist in suburban Chicago. Ms. Ullal knew from an early age that her parents wanted her to marry another Zoroastrianâ€¦
Ms. Ullalâ€™s college boyfriend is also the child of Indian immigrants to the United States, but he is Hindu. [They married on Saturday and had two ceremoniesâ€”one Hindu, one Zoroastrian.] But Ms. Ullal says that before they even became engaged, they talked about her desire to raise their children as Zoroastrians.
â€ťItâ€™s scary; weâ€™re dipping down in numbers,â€ť she said. â€śI donâ€™t want to hurt his parents, but he doesnâ€™t the kind of responsibility, whereas I do.â€ť
One thing Jews can possibly take from this article is evidence that the traditional approach to intermarriage, which is a combination of prohibition and rejection, is not effective. The priest in California who refuses to do mixed marriages, accept converts or perform initiation ceremonies for the children of intermarriages says breaking traditional Zoroastrian prohibitions â€śwould destroy my community, which is why I wonâ€™t do it.â€ť
But, as the article demonstrates, the number of Zoroastrians is dwindling regardless of this line-in-the-sand kind of thinking. Moreover, by forsaking the children of mixed marriages, he very well may be contributing to the decline of Zoroastrianism. The same could be said for those in the Jewish community who would disregard the opportunity to welcome intermarried families and embrace their children.
The response of Rohena Elavia Ullel and Ferzin Patel, who want to raise their children as Zoroastrian but donâ€™t want to push their husbands to convert, is more realistic in our diverse world. And their response certainly has a better chance of stemming Zoroastrian population decline than the outright rejection of the intermarried. The Jewish community faces the same issues. Whose lead do we want to follow?
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