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Is it the spirit of the law or the letter of the law that counts the most?
â€śYour kids arenâ€™t Jewish because your wife is not Jewish,â€ť my friend said to me over coffee recently. I laughed so hard that my coffee spilled. â€śWhatâ€™s so funny?â€ť she asked.
â€śI know that you totally did not mean for that to come across as offensive.â€ť I said, â€śBut that is EXACTLY the kind of thing that we are trying to teach people not to say. InterfaithFamily wants to help build welcoming and inclusive Jewish communities and saying something like what you just said, for many people, is offensive.â€ť
There are many times in oneâ€™s life that a person might find himself doing something without asking the question, â€śWhy am I doing this?â€ť One of the most divisive rabbinic rulings that is adhered to by various Jewish movements is that the religion of a baby is determined by the religion of the mother, not the father. So if a person is intermarried (as over 50 percent of the American Jewish population is), and they want their child to be recognized as Jewish to people within these movements, according to halachaâ€”traditional Jewish lawâ€”it is the religion of the mother that â€śmatters.â€ť Â There are other views, such as the Reform movement, that recognizes a child as being Jewish if either parent is Jewish and the child is being raised Jewish (often referred to as patrilineal descent).
One of the most interesting aspects of the origin of religious descent is that originally in the Torah (the centerpiece and master story of the Jewish people), the religion of the offspring was determined by patriarchal descent, not matriarchal. There was a change around 2,000 years ago, many scholars found, that was based on the very tragic circumstances the Jewish people were facing. Jews were being wiped out by the Roman Empire in the 1st Century. The victimization and rape of Jewish women by Roman soldiers was not an uncommon occurrence.
There was no genetic testing back then, of course, and since the Jewish people were facing extinction, the rabbis rightfully decreed that the only parental origin that â€śmatteredâ€ť for determining the religion of the baby was the religion of the mother. This law, which is still practiced by many Jewish communities today, had a very practical design.
But as Bob Dylan would say, â€śThe times they are a-changinâ€™.â€ť It is true that there is still horrific â€śethnic cleansingâ€ť that goes on around the world, such as in Bosnia and Darfur. But the problem that Jews were facing 2,000 years ago is, thankfully, no longer a common occurrence or threat. The law that once was helpful is no longer necessary.
When my son was born, my wife and I decided to have a bris and our search began to find a mohel that was willing to perform this ritual ceremony on a child from an interfaith marriage. At that time, f the mother was Jewish, it was much easier. Because I was the Jewish parent, many of the mohels we spoke to would only perform the ceremony if my wife and son wen to the mikveh together. â€śSo whatâ€™s the big deal?â€ť I ignorantly asked. â€śIt will be fun to go to the mikveh.â€ť Sounded simple enough from an unaware Jewish dadâ€™s perspective. (By the way, if you are looking for clergy to help with a birth ceremony for your interfaith family, we are here to helpâ€”just visit interfaithfamily.com/findarabbi.)
My wife was not too excited about this idea. Her initial reaction was, â€śWho are we trying to please?â€ť or in other words â€śWhy?â€ť
Our kids are brought up Jewish in a Jewish house with mezuzahs on the doors. They attend Hebrew school and we celebrate Shabbat in our own meaningful way. And to us, right now, that is enough.
If you have questions about a bris or baby naming for an interfaith family, check out our baby naming booklet that you might find helpful. And please send me your stories (firstname.lastname@example.org), I would love to hear about your experiences as I continue this series of Halachah Unplugged.
As our booklet on baby girl naming ceremonies explains, names are the beginning of identity formation. Choosing your babyâ€™s name helps to shape the kind of person you are hoping the baby will become. By selecting a Hebrew name, you connect your child to the generations that precede him or her, a community and a system of values. The Ashkenazi (Jews descended from Eastern Europe) have a tradition of naming a baby after a parent or grandparent who has died. This custom dates back to the 6th century B.C.E and naming children after their familiesâ€™ ancestors remains the custom today.
Sephardic Jews (descendants of Spain and Portugal) often name their children after relatives that are alive. Because most American Jews are descendants of Ashkenazi Jews, parents often name their children after a family member who has died. Stories about the remembered relative bring a powerful emotional connection to the past and link to your hope for the future.
Some couples choose to have their sons circumcised in the hospital and opt for a Hebrew name ceremony later. Others choose to have a bris (brit milah: ritual circumcision) at eight days old during which the baby will be given his Hebrew name (even if the mother is not Jewish, if a couple wants to keep this ancient Jewish tradition and intends for their to child to be raised with Judaism, Reform mohelimâ€”doctors with special training to perform a brisâ€”will come to the home to perform the circumcision). Others choose not to circumcise and to have a naming ceremony later. For girls, parents often want to hold a ceremony to give her a Hebrew name.
Sometimes couples go back to the rabbi who married them to create a naming ceremony with them. Sometimes couples have found a synagogue and want the naming to take place in this community. However couples decide to publically â€śgiveâ€ť their child their Hebrew name, this can be a very special time for the family. For interfaith couples, it can be a time when the parents talk about the religious decisions they have made and to celebrate the arrival of their child and the sacred task of parenting.
Even though many couples have the naming ceremony when their baby is young, others hold the ceremony at the first birthday or another time. It is never too late to meet with Jewish clergy (a rabbi or cantor) to select a Hebrew name for a child.
Here are Nora Vickermanâ€™s words which she spoke at the recent naming ceremony we had for her daughter, Chloe. What joy it was for me to have stood with this couple under the chuppah at their wedding and then to be able to bless their baby.
Chloe was born of parents who have a deep love for one another, a joy in our traditions and a commitment to Chloe, our daughter, to share and blend together as a family the beauty of both of our traditions. It is with this shared sense of commitment to all that is good and to all that is beautiful in our religions that we are here today to celebrate with our friends and with our family the first of many of our family traditions.
The naming of a Jewish child is a most profound spiritual moment. The sages said that naming a baby is a statementÂ of her character, her specialness, and her path in life. For at the beginning of life, we give our child a name, and at the end of life, a â€śgood nameâ€ť is all we take with us. It is also the Jewish custom to name your child after a relative who has passed away. It is a great honor, keeping the name and memory of a deceased lovedÂ oneÂ forever alive, and in a metaphysical way, forms theÂ bond between the soul of the baby and the relatives that she will be namedÂ for. My JewishÂ tradition calls for the naming of a baby with an English name as well asÂ aÂ Hebrew name, or names. Matt and I want our daughter to share inÂ the richness ofÂ herÂ heritage.
Chloe RoseÂ shares a connection toÂ her greatÂ grandfather Charles and hence her first name Chloe. Matt and I immediately knew that this would be her first name. My great grandfather came to this country from Russia.Â HeÂ brought with him theÂ drive to succeed in a new land as well as aÂ commitment to his Jewish religion and his love for tradition. He is honored in a book that described the History of the Jewish people in Beckley, West Virginia. HeÂ helped to establishÂ the first Reform synagogueÂ inÂ the city.Â His courage, strength, andÂ commitment toÂ tradition and family are the traits that we wish for our Chloe.Â Her second English name is Rose.Â We also loved that name. She was given the name Rose to honor my great Aunt Roselyn, myÂ great grandmothersâ€™ oldest sister.Â She was a kind, intelligent, and beautiful lady who believed in the goodness ofÂ giving of oneself and toÂ charity.Â The name Roselyn meansÂ a beautiful rose befitting our beautiful daughter.
Matt and I choseÂ Chloeâ€™sÂ first HebrewÂ nameÂ to express our love for two familyÂ members whoÂ are no longerÂ with us.Â We choseÂ the Hebrew nameÂ Shira,Â when translatedÂ means song and light.Â How appropriate for our Chloe. She discovered the joy of song very early and has sungÂ her sweetÂ songs ever since the age of three months.Â And as you all may know ChloeÂ isÂ the light of our life.Â The SÂ letterÂ inÂ ShiraÂ honorsÂ Mattâ€™sÂ grandfather Samuel, and the HebrewÂ letterÂ ShinÂ inÂ ShiraÂ honorsÂ my motherâ€™s motherÂ Shirley, mayÂ their memories shine forever. May our beautifulÂ daughter Chloe know that she will forever be connected in love to them as well asÂ connected by familyÂ tradition.Â Chloeâ€™s second Hebrew name isÂ Yehudeet- aÂ womanÂ of great strength and fortitude (or in English, Judith). Yehudeet was given after my fatherâ€™s father,Â Jacques.Â Our hope for Chloe is that as she grows she willÂ always have the strength andÂ convictionÂ to do what is just andÂ what isÂ right throughout her life.
If you would like to connect with a rabbi or cantor to hold a naming ceremony, please fill out this short form and we will be in touch shortly.