The name of each weekâ€™s parasha is typically the first Hebrew word of that grouping of chapters.Â This weekâ€™s parasha, VA-YERA/And He Appeared, tells multiple stories about Abraham and his family. In 5 short chapters a lot of stories are offered. Hereâ€™s the run-down:
Chapter 18:Â TWO very fascinating sagas. Story #1: Abraham hears from some visiting angels that he and Sarah will conceive a child even at their advanced old age; Sarah will give birth to Isaac/Yitzhak (whose name â€śhe will laughâ€ť was suggested by God in last weekâ€™s parasha). Story #2: God tells Abe that the city of Sâ€™dom will be utterly destroyed because its â€śsin is so graveâ€ť (Chapter 18 verse 17-25).Â At the end of this we read how Abraham bargains with God to save Sâ€™dom (Sodom).
Chapter 19:Â The destruction of Sâ€™dom and Gemorrah with all the evil-doing exposed. How Lot and his family are saved; how Lotâ€™s wife turns into the famous pillar of salt (chapter 19 verses 15-26); how Lotâ€™s daughters think the end of the world has come so get their father drunk, have sex with him, and each becomes pregnant (to keep the worldâ€™s population going).
Chapter 20: Abraham and Sarah travel south, meet up with the King of Gerar; Abraham again passes Sarah off as his sister, rather than his wife, causing major troubles for the King of Gerar AND Abraham.Â The plot thickens!
Chapter 21:Â Sarah gives birth to a baby boy, Yitzhak.Â He is weaned, grows into a little boy.Â One day, Sarah sees him â€śplayingâ€ť (same Hebrew root word as his actual name) with his older brother Yishmaâ€™el, (the son of Hagar, the maidservant) and Sarah doesnâ€™t like what she sees.Â She tells Abraham to banish Hagar the teenager Yishmaâ€™el once and for all and they are expelled to the desert.
Watch the g-dcast episode and find out what Hagar, the Egyptian maidservant sees when she is completely distraught and fears for her sonâ€™s life (read the story in chapter 21 verse 9-21).
Many people think of Abraham as SEEING things that others did not and could not (see last weekâ€™s blog for link to Martin Buber essay, Abraham The Seer.)Â This week, it is Hagar who SEES things others might have missed.
Finally, in Chapter 22 we come to a story that is at the top of my list of the most disturbing episodes in all of Torah, referred to as the Akedah/The Binding (chapter 22). This is when Abraham hears Godâ€™s command to sacrifice his son, Yitzhak, as a burnt offering. It is complicated from so many different angles and it seems to me that this saga has disturbed all who read it, back from the time that the story was born. Evidence of this goes back to the earliest midrashim/legends that comment on the story of the Akedah. The early rabbinic commentators (from the year 200 CE) frame the story as a â€śtestâ€ť God gives Abraham. They posit that there were 10 â€śtestsâ€ť in all and the Akedah was one of them.Â A fascinating way of looking at this idea that the Akedah is a â€śtestâ€ť is offered by Bible professor, Dr. David Marcus of the Jewish Theological Seminary.
Professor Marcus introduces the literary idea of â€śprolepsisâ€ť also known in literature as â€śforeshadowing.â€ť The idea is that somehow, we, the reader, know that this horrendous thing God requests is â€śjust a test.â€ť Itâ€™s kind of like the new Ben Affleck movie, Argo, the story of the rescue of U.S. hostages in Iran in 1979. Even though we know that the hostages will eventually be rescued, while we are watching the movie, we are swept away by the frightening situation and remain riveted, sitting at the edges of our seats.
But back to Genesis: yes, itâ€™s true, we know that Abraham will pass the test of the Akedah and that in the end, he will sacrifice a ram instead of his beloved son and that everything will turn out OK. But still, we can’t help but think….
And now for some art:
- 20th century Israeli poet Amir Gilboaâ€™s poem Yitzhak
- Jan Victorâ€™s painting of the Expulsion of Hagar:
(If you like looking at the way painters have imagined these scenes from parashat VA-YERA for the past 500 years, surf the net to find many examples!)
- Why does any great leader need to be â€śtestedâ€ť?
- What â€śtestsâ€ť have you experienced as enormous challenges that you â€śpassedâ€ť at great cost to yourself?Â Or, do you think these kinds of character tests are important to build character strength?