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The Women of the Passover Story

April 1, 2014

Women BibleThere is a saying in the Talmud that it is because of the merit of the women of the Exodus story that Israel is redeemed from Egypt. The women of Passover that this refers to are: Yocheved, Mother of Moses; Miriam, sister of Moses; Shifra and Puah, the midwives; Tziporah, Mose’s Midianite wife; and Batya, Pharaoh’s daughter. 

In the first chapter of the Biblical book of Exodus, the scene is set for the story of the flight from Egypt. A Pharaoh begins to rule in Egypt, he does not know the generation of Joseph and he begins to oppress the children of Israel. First he enslaves them, but they continue to multiply. The first female characters to appear in Exodus (1:15-20) are Shifra and Puah, Hebrew midwives. The Pharaoh calls the Hebrew midwives to appear before him, and demands that they kill the male children of the Israelites. The midwives refuse his request claiming that the Hebrew women are lively and give birth before they even reach them. This is one of the earliest known acts of civil disobedience. The text is unclear whether they were actually Hebrew midwives or Egyptian midwives for the Hebrews. In either case for them to stand up to the Pharoah was heroic, but if they were Egyptian—it’s astonishing.
 

Yocheved, the next woman mentioned, is clearly a member of the tribe of Israelites. She goes to extreme measures to save her son by putting him in an ark and sending him off down the river with Miriam, his sister, to stand guard. Miriam we get to know through her many acts of leadership, prophecy and song. Yet Yocheved and Miriam, in this context, must be acknowledged for their faith and hope they put in whomever finds Moses. It wasn’t going to be an Israelite family who could save him. They had to depend on the goodness of their non-Israelite “neighbors.”

The next magnanimous female character we encounter is Batya. Batya, or Bithia, was the daughter of the Pharoah himself, clearly Egyptian. Her story appears in Exodus 2:5-10, where she goes to the river to wash. Her father has issued a decree to kill all Hebrew babies, yet her actions contradict his.  She is unnamed yet she does such an overwhelming gesture of kindness, i.e. saving the baby, that the rabbis felt compelled to give her a name: Batya, meaning “daughter of God.” By this act of kindness she becomes Divine and sits beside God’s throne handing out blessings.
 

Not only does Batya reach beyond her self, her family, her attendants and her upbringing, but she also stretches beyond her comfort level to become something new—a mother. She adopts and welcomes a child of another background. She opens her heart to raise a child of another faith in her home. She then turns to Miriam to ask her to find him a wet nurse. She knowingly stays engaged with his family of origin. She is a model of welcoming and outreach and the tradition is that when we welcome others by adoption or just hospitality, she blesses us.

Later Moses marries Tziporah, a Midianite princess—clearly an interfaith marriage. On the way back to Egypt after the incident of the Burning Bush, there is a very cryptic story. Tzipporah, Moses' wife, circumcises her son in Exodus 4:24-26 with the words "You are a bridegroom of blood to me."Judaism hands us a powerful ancient tradition of women circumcising their sons. This has been an extremely difficult passage to interpret. The midrash teaches that only one of Moses and Tzipporah’s children had been circumcised, for the other had been promised to Yitro to be raised Egyptian. Two angels stopped Moses and Tzipporah on their way back to Egypt. The angels of black and red fire, Af and Hemah who do God's will on earth, were prepared to kill Moses for this transgression. 9  "Then Tzipporah took a sharp stone, and cut off the foreskin of her son, and cast it at his feet, (assumed to be Moses'), and said 'Surely you are a bridegroom of blood to me.’ So he let him go; then she said, ‘A bloody bridegroom you are,’ because of the circumcision.”
 

So here we have six women who are crucial to the saving of the Israelites, yet not all were Jewish themselves! With the exception of Yocheved and Miriam, and assuming the midwives were possibly Egyptians, the Israelites are  dependent on a larger context beyond the tribes. Clearly we claim these non-Israelite women as our heroines. Clearly they are part of our story, and clearly they are significant characters in our transformation from slavery to freedom. Then, as today, the survival and health of the Jewish people is not always in our own hands. As we move forward with these stories as our guide and the reality of the many interfaith partners we are embracing along the way, we must appreciate their efforts this Passover season in the ongoing story of liberation and transformation of the Jewish people.



9 Ginzberg, Legends of the Jews, Vol. 2, p. 295, 308

Hebrew for "story," a way of interpreting biblical stories that often fills in the gaps left in the biblical narrative and expands on events of characters that are only hinted at. A language of West Semitic origins, culturally considered to be the language of the Jewish people. Ancient or Classical Hebrew is the language of Jewish prayer or study. Modern Hebrew was developed in the late-19th and early 20th centuries as a revival language; today it is spoken by most Israelis.
Hebrew for "instruction" or "learning," a central text of Judaism, recording the rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, philosophy, customs and history. It has two parts: Mishnah (redacted c. 200 CE) and Gemara (c. 500 CE), an elucidation of the Mishnah. A cabinet- or cupboard-like structure that houses the Torah(s) in a synagogue.
Rabbi Geela Rayzel Raphael

Rabbi Geela Rayzel Raphael is a rabbi in private practice in the Philadelphia area. She has a specialty in interfaith weddings and welcomes couples to her home on Shabbat. In addition, Rabbi Rayzel is an award winning singer/songwriter. You can visit her at Shechinah.com.

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