Glossary

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  • afikoman

    Dessert in Greek, it refers to the matzah that is hidden at the beginning of the Passover seder and which, customarily, children look for and ransom back to the adults before the conclusion.
  • Al Shlosha D’varim

    Hebrew for "on three things," the first words (and name) of a song in some Jewish worship services.
  • Al Shlosha Devarim

    Hebrew for "on three things," the first words (and name) of a song in some Jewish worship services.
  • Alaynu

    Hebrew for "our duty," it's the name and first word of a prayer recited at the end of three daily services in traditional Jewish liturgy.
  • Alef Beis

    The Hebrew alphabet, of which alef and bet are the first two letters. "Beis" is the Ashkenazi or Yiddish pronunciation of the letter bet.
  • alef bet

    The Hebrew alphabet, of which alef and bet are the first two letters.
  • Alef-Beis

    The Hebrew alphabet, of which alef and bet are the first two letters. "Beis" is the Ashkenazi or Yiddish pronunciation of the letter bet.
  • Alef-bet

    The Hebrew alphabet, of which alef and bet are the first two letters.
  • aleinu

    Hebrew for "our duty," it's the name and first word of a prayer recited at the end of three daily services in traditional Jewish liturgy.
  • Aleph Beis

    The Hebrew alphabet, of which alef and bet are the first two letters. "Beis" is the Ashkenazi or Yiddish pronunciation of the letter bet.
  • Aleph Bet

    The Hebrew alphabet, of which alef and bet are the first two letters.
  • Aleph Beth

    The Hebrew alphabet, of which alef and bet are the first two letters.
  • Aleph-Beis

    The Hebrew alphabet, of which alef and bet are the first two letters. "Beis" is the Ashkenazi or Yiddish pronunciation of the letter bet.
  • Aleph-Bet

    The Hebrew alphabet, of which alef and bet are the first two letters.
  • Aleph-Beth

    The Hebrew alphabet, of which alef and bet are the first two letters.
  • Aleynu

    Hebrew for "our duty," it's the name and first word of a prayer recited at the end of three daily services in traditional Jewish liturgy.
  • aliya

    Hebrew for "going up," it refers to the honor of saying the blessing over the Torah reading. It can also refer to the act of immigrating to Israel. (e.g. "After falling in love with Jerusalem, Rachel and Christopher made aliyah.")
  • Aliyah

    Hebrew for "going up," it refers to the honor of saying the blessing over the Torah reading. It can also refer to the act of immigrating to Israel. (e.g. "After falling in love with Jerusalem, Rachel and Christopher made aliyah.")
  • aliyahs

    The English or Yiddish plural for the Hebrew word "aliyah." Meaning "going up," it refers to the honor of saying the blessing over the Torah reading. It can also refer to the act of immigrating to Israel. (e.g. "After falling in love with Jerusalem, Rachel and Christopher made aliyah.")
  • aliyos

    The plural version of the Hebrew word "aliyah." Meaning "going up," it refers to the honor of saying the blessing over the Torah reading. It can also refer to the act of immigrating to Israel. (e.g. "After falling in love with Jerusalem, Rachel and Christopher made aliyah.")
  • aliyot

    The plural version of the Hebrew word "aliyah." Meaning "going up," it refers to the honor of saying the blessing over the Torah reading. It can also refer to the act of immigrating to Israel. (e.g. "After falling in love with Jerusalem, Rachel and Christopher made aliyah.")
  • amidah

    Tefilat Amidah, Hebrew for "The Standing Prayer," is the central prayer of Jewish liturgy. It is recited during every prayer service. Traditionally it's recited individually in silence, then repeated aloud as a congregation; some congregations omit the silent recitation and/or abbreviate the repetition.
  • ariv

    Also known as ma'ariv, the evening prayer service.
  • ark

    A cabinet- or cupboard-like structure that houses the Torah(s) in a synagogue.
  • aron

    Hebrew for "cupboard" or "closet," it usually refers to the ark, a structure that houses the Torah(s) in a synagogue.
  • aron kodesh

    Hebrew for "holy cupboard" or "holy closet," a name for the ark, a structure that houses the Torah(s) in a synagogue.
  • ashkenazi

    Having Jewish family origins in Germany or Eastern Europe.
  • ashkenazic

    Of the culture of Jews with family origins in Germany or Eastern Europe.
  • ashkenazim

    Jews with family origins in Germany or Eastern Europe.
  • auf ruf

    Yiddish for "calling up," it's a celebration of a couple on the Jewish Sabbath prior to their wedding. It usually involves the honor of an aliyah (saying the blessing over the Torah). After the Torah reading, the congregation customarily sings a congratulatory song and may also throw candies at the couple.
  • Aufruf

    Yiddish for "calling up," it's a celebration of a couple on the Jewish Sabbath prior to their wedding. It usually involves the honor of an aliyah (saying the blessing over the Torah). After the Torah reading, the congregation customarily sings a congratulatory song and may also throw candies at the couple.
  • B’nai mitzva

    Hebrew plural of "bar mitzvah" or "bat mitzvah." In modern Jewish practice, Jewish children come of age at 13. When a child comes of age, he or she is officially a bar mitzvah ("son of the commandments") or bat mitzvah ("daughter of the commandments") and considered an adult. The terms are commonly used as a short-hand for the bar/bat mitzvah's coming-of-age ceremony and/or celebration.
  • B’nai mitzvah

    Hebrew plural of "bar mitzvah" or "bat mitzvah." In modern Jewish practice, Jewish children come of age at 13. When a child comes of age, he or she is officially a bar mitzvah ("son of the commandments") or bat mitzvah ("daughter of the commandments") and considered an adult. The terms are commonly used as a short-hand for the bar/bat mitzvah's coming-of-age ceremony and/or celebration.
  • B’racha

    Hebrew for "blessing" (and "bounty").
  • b’vakasha

    Hebrew for "please" and "you're welcome."
  • Bar Mitzva

    Hebrew for "son of the commandments." In modern Jewish practice, Jewish boys come of age at 13. When a boy comes of age, he is officially a bar mitzvah and considered an adult. The term is commonly used as a short-hand for the bar mitzvah's coming-of-age ceremony and/or celebration. The female equivalent is "bat mitzvah."
  • Bar Mitzvah

    Hebrew for "son of the commandments." In modern Jewish practice, Jewish boys come of age at 13. When a boy comes of age, he is officially a bar mitzvah and considered an adult. The term is commonly used as a short-hand for the bar mitzvah's coming-of-age ceremony and/or celebration. The female equivalent is "bat mitzvah."
  • baruch ata adonai

    Blessed are You, my God in Hebrew. Introductory words to many Jewish prayers.
  • Baruch atah Adonai

    "Blessed are You, my God" in Hebrew. Introductory words to many Jewish prayers.
  • baruch ha’ba’ah

    Hebrew for "welcome" (when welcoming a female).
  • Baruch Ha’bah

    Hebrew for "welcome" (when welcoming a male).
  • baruch haba’ah

    Hebrew for "welcome" (when welcoming a female).
  • baruch habaah

    Hebrew for "welcome" (when welcoming a female).
  • Baruch habah

    Hebrew for "welcome" (when welcoming a male).
  • baruchot ha’ba’ot

    Hebrew for "welcome" (when welcoming more than one female).
  • baruchot ha’bahot

    Hebrew for "welcome" (when welcoming more than one female).
  • baruchot habaot

    Hebrew for "welcome" (when welcoming more than one female).
  • barukh ha’ba’ah

    Hebrew for "welcome" (when welcoming a female).
  • barukh ha’bah

    Hebrew for "welcome" (when welcoming a male).
  • barukh haba’ah

    Hebrew for "welcome" (when welcoming a female).
  • barukh habaah

    Hebrew for "welcome" (when welcoming a female).
  • barukh habah

    Hebrew for "welcome" (when welcoming a male).
  • barukhot ha’ba’ot

    Hebrew for "welcome" (when welcoming more than one female).
  • barukhot ha’bahot

    Hebrew for "welcome" (when welcoming more than one female).
  • barukhot habaot

    Hebrew for "welcome" (when welcoming more than one female).
  • bas mitzvah

    Hebrew for "daughter of the commandments." In modern Jewish practice, Jewish girls come of age at 12 or 13. When a girl comes of age, she is officially a bat mitzvah and considered an adult. The term is commonly used as a short-hand for the bat mitzvah's coming-of-age ceremony and/or celebration. The male equivalent is "bar mitzvah."
  • Bat mitzva

    Hebrew for "daughter of the commandments." In modern Jewish practice, Jewish girls come of age at 12 or 13. When a girl comes of age, she is officially a bat mitzvah and considered an adult. The term is commonly used as a short-hand for the bat mitzvah's coming-of-age ceremony and/or celebration. The male equivalent is "bar mitzvah."
  • Bat mitzvah

    Hebrew for "daughter of the commandments." In modern Jewish practice, Jewish girls come of age at 12 or 13. When a girl comes of age, she is officially a bat mitzvah and considered an adult. The term is commonly used as a short-hand for the bat mitzvah's coming-of-age ceremony and/or celebration. The male equivalent is "bar mitzvah."
  • beis din

    Rabbinic court involved in matters of Jewish law, including conversion and traditional divorce procedures.
  • Beit din

    Rabbinic court involved in matters of Jewish law, including conversion and traditional divorce procedures.
  • benching

    In Yiddish, "bentshn" means "to bless." It means "blessing" and refers to saying the blessing after meals, "Birkat Hamazon" (Hebrew for "Blessing on Nourishment").
  • bensching

    In Yiddish, "bentshn" means "to bless." It means "blessing" and refers to saying the blessing after meals, "Birkat Hamazon" (Hebrew for "Blessing on Nourishment").
  • beracha

    Hebrew for "blessing" (and "bounty").
  • berachot

    Hebrew for the plural of "blessing" (and "bounty").
  • Berakhah

    Hebrew for "blessing" (and "bounty").
  • bima

    The elevated area or platform in a synagogue, from which Torah is read. Worship service leaders, such as clergy, may lead services from the bimah as well.
  • Bimah

    The elevated area or platform in a synagogue, from which Torah is read. Worship service leaders, such as clergy, may lead services from the bimah as well.
  • bircat erusin

    Engagement blessings, part of Jewish wedding service.
  • bircat nissuin

    Hebrew for "the wedding blessings," also known as sheva brachot ("the seven blessings"), are blessings that are recited for a couple as part of their marriage ceremony.
  • bircat nisuin

    Hebrew for "the wedding blessings," also known as sheva brachot ("the seven blessings"), are blessings that are recited for a couple as part of their marriage ceremony.
  • Birchot erusin

    Engagement blessings, part of Jewish wedding service.
  • Birchot nissuin

    Hebrew for "the wedding blessings," also known as sheva brachot ("the seven blessings"), are blessings that are recited for a couple as part of their marriage ceremony.
  • Birchot nisuin

    Hebrew for "the wedding blessings," also known as sheva brachot ("the seven blessings"), are blessings that are recited for a couple as part of their marriage ceremony.
  • birkas erusin

    Engagement blessings, part of Jewish wedding service.
  • birkas ha’mazon

    Hebrew for "Blessing on Nourishment," the blessing after meals.
  • birkas hamazon

    Hebrew for "Blessing on Nourishment," the blessing after meals.
  • birkas nisuin

    Hebrew for "the wedding blessings," also known as sheva brachot ("the seven blessings"), are blessings that are recited for a couple as part of their marriage ceremony.
  • birkat erusin

    Engagement blessings, part of Jewish wedding service.
  • birkat ha’mazon

    Hebrew for "Blessing on Nourishment," the blessing after meals.
  • birkat hamazon

    Hebrew for "Blessing on Nourishment," the blessing after meals.
  • birkat nisuin

    Hebrew for "the wedding blessings," also known as sheva brachot ("the seven blessings"), are blessings that are recited for a couple as part of their marriage ceremony.
  • birkot nissuin

    Hebrew for "the wedding blessings," also known as sheva brachot ("the seven blessings"), are blessings that are recited for a couple as part of their marriage ceremony.
  • birkot nisuin

    Hebrew for "the wedding blessings," also known as sheva brachot ("the seven blessings"), are blessings that are recited for a couple as part of their marriage ceremony.
  • Birthright Israel

    An international program that sends thousands of young Jews to Israel each year for free.
  • blintze

    A thin crepe-like pancake that's fried, folded or wrapped around a fruit or cream cheese filling, and then fried again.
  • bnai mitzva

    Hebrew plural of "bar mitzvah" or "bat mitzvah." In modern Jewish practice, Jewish children come of age at 13. When a child comes of age, he or she is officially a bar mitzvah ("son of the commandments") or bat mitzvah ("daughter of the commandments") and considered an adult. The terms are commonly used as a short-hand for the bar/bat mitzvah's coming-of-age ceremony and/or celebration.
  • bnai mitzvah

    Hebrew plural of "bar mitzvah" or "bat mitzvah." In modern Jewish practice, Jewish children come of age at 13. When a child comes of age, he or she is officially a bar mitzvah ("son of the commandments") or bat mitzvah ("daughter of the commandments") and considered an adult. The terms are commonly used as a short-hand for the bar/bat mitzvah's coming-of-age ceremony and/or celebration.
  • bracha

    Hebrew for "blessing" (and "bounty").
  • Brachah

    Hebrew for "blessing" (and "bounty").
  • brachas

    Hebrew for the plural of "blessing" (and "bounty").
  • Bracho

    Hebrew for "blessing" (and "bounty").
  • Brachos

    Hebrew for the plural of "blessing" (and "bounty").
  • brachot

    Hebrew for the plural of "blessing" (and "bounty").
  • brakha

    Hebrew for "blessing" (and "bounty").
  • Brakhah

    Hebrew for "blessing" (and "bounty").
  • brakhas

    Hebrew for the plural of "blessing" (and "bounty").
  • Brakhos

    Hebrew for the plural of "blessing" (and "bounty").
  • brakhot

    Hebrew for the plural of "blessing" (and "bounty").
  • Bris

    Hebrew for "covenant," often referring to the ritual for Jewish boys when they are 8 days old ("brit milah" - "covenant of circumcision"). It is commonly known as "bris," which is the Ashkenazi or Yiddish pronunciation of "brit."
  • bris bas

    Hebrew for "daughter's covenant," a ceremony or ritual for welcoming baby girls into the Jewish community.
  • bris bat

    Hebrew for "daughter's covenant," a ceremony or ritual for welcoming baby girls into the Jewish community.
  • bris mila

    Hebrew for "covenant of circumcision," a ritual for Jewish boys when they are 8 days old. It is commonly known as "bris," which is the Ashkenazi or Yiddish pronunciation of "brit."
  • bris milah

    Hebrew for "covenant of circumcision," a ritual for Jewish boys when they are 8 days old. It is commonly known as "bris," which is the Ashkenazi or Yiddish pronunciation of "brit."
  • Brit

    Hebrew for "covenant," often referring to the ritual for Jewish boys when they are 8 days old ("brit milah" - "covenant of circumcision"). It is commonly known as "bris," which is the Ashkenazi or Yiddish pronunciation of "brit."
  • Brit bat

    Hebrew for "daughter's covenant," a ceremony or ritual for welcoming baby girls into the Jewish community.
  • brit mila

    Hebrew for "covenant of circumcision," a ritual for Jewish boys when they are 8 days old. It is commonly known as "bris," which is the Ashkenazi or Yiddish pronunciation of "brit."
  • Brit milah

    Hebrew for "covenant of circumcision," a ritual for Jewish boys when they are 8 days old. It is commonly known as "bris," which is the Ashkenazi or Yiddish pronunciation of "brit."
  • bruchim ha’ba’im

    Hebrew for "welcome" (when welcoming more than one male or a group of males and females).
  • bruchim ha’baim

    Hebrew for "welcome" (when welcoming more than one male or a group of males and females).
  • bruchim habaim

    Hebrew for "welcome" (when welcoming more than one male or a group of males and females).
  • brukhim ha’ba’im

    Hebrew for "welcome" (when welcoming more than one male or a group of males and females).
  • brukhim ha’baim

    Hebrew for "welcome" (when welcoming more than one male or a group of males and females).
  • brukhim habaim

    Hebrew for "welcome" (when welcoming more than one male or a group of males and females).
  • Bubbe

    Yiddish for "grandmother."
  • bubbie

    Yiddish for "grandmother."
  • bubby

    Yiddish for "grandmother."
  • cantor

    A member of the Jewish clergy who leads a congregation in songful prayer. ("Hazzan" in Hebrew.)
  • Chag Sameach

    Hebrew for "happy holiday."
  • challah

    Braided bread made with eggs, over which the Shabbat and holidays.
  • challahs

    A bread that comes in a few different varieties; its most common variation is a braided egg bread, though there are water challahs that don't have eggs, and there are whole-wheat challahs which sometimes also don't have eggs. It is customary to being Sabbath and holiday meals by saying blessings and eating challah.
  • challe

    A bread that comes in a few different varieties; its most common variation is a braided egg bread, though there are water challahs that don't have eggs, and there are whole-wheat challahs which sometimes also don't have eggs. It is customary to being Sabbath and holiday meals by saying blessings and eating challah.
  • challeh

    A bread that comes in a few different varieties; its most common variation is a braided egg bread, though there are water challahs that don't have eggs, and there are whole-wheat challahs which sometimes also don't have eggs. It is customary to being Sabbath and holiday meals by saying blessings and eating challah.
  • challos

    A bread that comes in a few different varieties; its most common variation is a braided egg bread, though there are water challahs that don't have eggs, and there are whole-wheat challahs which sometimes also don't have eggs. It is customary to being Sabbath and holiday meals by saying blessings and eating challah.
  • Chametz

    Hebrew for "leavened," foods that are not kosher for Passover, such as bread and wheat-based products. It refers to products that are both made from one of five types of grain and have been combined with water and left to stand raw (rise) for longer than eighteen minutes.
  • Channukah

    Hanukkah (known by many spellings) is an eight-day Jewish holiday commemorating the rededication of the Second Temple in Jerusalem at the time of the Maccabean Revolt of the 2nd Century BCE. It is marked by the lighting of a menorah and the eating of fried foods.
  • Chanuka

    Hanukkah (known by many spellings) is an eight-day Jewish holiday commemorating the rededication of the Second Temple in Jerusalem at the time of the Maccabean Revolt of the 2nd Century BCE. It is marked by the lighting of a menorah and the eating of fried foods.
  • Chanukah

    Hanukkah (known by many spellings) is an eight-day Jewish holiday commemorating the rededication of the Second Temple in Jerusalem at the time of the Maccabean Revolt of the 2nd Century BCE. It is marked by the lighting of a menorah and the eating of fried foods.
  • Chanukkah

    Hanukkah (known by many spellings) is an eight-day Jewish holiday commemorating the rededication of the Second Temple in Jerusalem at the time of the Maccabean Revolt of the 2nd Century BCE. It is marked by the lighting of a menorah and the eating of fried foods.
  • charoses

    Derived from the Hebrew word "cheres," which means clay, it's a mixture of fruit, nuts, and wine eaten as part of the Passover seder. Symbolizing the mortar that the Hebrew slaves used to build the cities for Pharaoh in Egypt, it's one of the symbolic food items on the seder plate.
  • Charoset

    Mixture of fruit, nuts, and wine, traditionally eaten during Passover. Symbolizes the mortar that the Hebrew slaves in Egypt used to build the Pharoah's pyramids.
  • chasid

    Hebrew for "pious," commonly refers to a member of an Orthodox Jewish mystic movement founded in the 18th century in Eastern Europe by Baal Shem Tov that reacted against Talmudic learning and maintained that God's presence was in all of one's surroundings and that one should serve God in one's every deed and word.
  • Chasidic

    Hebrew for "pious," commonly refers to a member of an Orthodox Jewish mystic movement founded in the 18th century in Eastern Europe by Baal Shem Tov that reacted against Talmudic learning and maintained that God's presence was in all of one's surroundings and that one should serve God in one's every deed and word.
  • Chazan

    Hebrew for "cantor," a member of the Jewish clergy who leads a congregation in songful prayer.
  • chazzan

    Hebrew for "cantor," a member of the Jewish clergy who leads a congregation in songful prayer.
  • chesed shel emes

    Hebrew for "true kindness," refers to burial of the dead.
  • chesed shel emet

    Hebrew for "true kindness," refers to burial of the dead.
  • chesped

    Hebrew for "eulogy."
  • Chol Ha’Moed

    Hebrew for "weekdays of the festival," refers to the intermediate days of Passover and Sukkot. For example, the first two days of Passover are a holiday, but the next days are not; on the first days, work is not permitted according to traditional Jewish law, but on the intermediate days work is permitted.
  • Chol HaMoed

    Hebrew for "weekdays of the festival," refers to the intermediate days of Passover and Sukkot. For example, the first two days of Passover are a holiday, but the next days are not; on the first days, work is not permitted according to traditional Jewish law, but on the intermediate days work is permitted.
  • Cholent

    From the Yiddish word "tsholnt," a stew that is brought to a boil before the Sabbath and then kept warm overnight to fully cook in time for Saturday's lunch. There are several different stories for the origin of the word, though most seem to connect it to Old French, "chalant" ("to warm") or "chaud lent" ("hot slow").
  • chometz

    Hebrew for "leavened," foods that are not kosher for Passover, such as bread and wheat-based products. It refers to products that are both made from one of five types of grain and have been combined with water and left to stand raw (rise) for longer than eighteen minutes.
  • chulent

    From the Yiddish word "tsholnt," a stew that is brought to a boil before the Sabbath and then kept warm overnight to fully cook in time for Saturday's lunch. There are several different stories for the origin of the word, though most seem to connect it to Old French, "chalant" ("to warm") or "chaud lent" ("hot slow").
  • chumetz

    Hebrew for "leavened," foods that are not kosher for Passover, such as bread and wheat-based products. It refers to products that are both made from one of five types of grain and have been combined with water and left to stand raw (rise) for longer than eighteen minutes.
  • chupah

    Hebrew for "canopy" or "covering," the structure (open on all four sides) under which a Jewish wedding ceremony takes place. In its simplest for, it consists of a cloth, sheet, or tallit stretched or supported over four poles.
  • chuppa

    A huppah--often spelled ?chuppah?--is a Jewish wedding canopy with four open sides. A Jewish wedding ceremony typically occurs under a huppah.
  • Chuppah

    Hebrew for "canopy" or "covering," the structure (open on all four sides) under which a Jewish wedding ceremony takes place. In its simplest for, it consists of a cloth, sheet, or tallit stretched or supported over four poles.
  • chutzpa

    A Yiddish word meaning audacity, for good or for bad; commonly used to imply something was gutsy. Derived from the Hebrew word for "insolence."
  • chutzpah

    A Yiddish word meaning audacity, for good or for bad; commonly used to imply something was gutsy. Derived from the Hebrew word for "insolence."
  • Communion

    In Christianity, when wine and a wafer, symbolic of the blood and body of Jesus Christ, are consumed.
  • confirmation

    In Judaism, this refers to a ceremony created by the Reform movement as a way for young adults to show their decision to embrace Jewish study and reaffirm their commitment to Judaism. Confirmation is typically held at the end of the tenth grade. In Christianity, confirmation is either considered a sacrament or a rite ceremonially performed in a church. In some denominations and churches, confirmation is understood as bestowing the Holy Spirit. In others it signifies entering adulthood. In still others, it results in church membership.
  • congregation

    People who attend and worship at a given synagogue.
  • D’var

    Short for "dvar Torah," Hebrew for "word of Torah," a lesson or sermon based on the weekly reading of the Torah.
  • d’var Torah

    Hebrew for "word of Torah," a lesson or sermon based on the weekly reading of the Torah.
  • daven

    Yiddish for "prayer," it's often used as a verb in English. ("I'm going to daven Saturday morning.")
  • davening

    From the Yiddish word for "prayer," it's often used as a verb in English. ("I'm davening at services tonight.")
  • davenning

    From the Yiddish word for "prayer," it's often used as a verb in English. ("I'm davening at services tonight.")
  • Dayeinu

    Hebrew for "enough for us," it's the refrain and name of a liturgical song from the Passover seder.
  • Dayenu

    Hebrew for "enough for us," it's the refrain and name of a liturgical song from the Passover seder.
  • Dreidel

    Yiddish for "spin," a four-sided spinning top played with during the Jewish holiday of Hanukkah.
  • Dreydel

    Yiddish for "spin," a four-sided spinning top played with during the Jewish holiday of Hanukkah.
  • dreydl

    Yiddish for "spin," a four-sided spinning top played with during the Jewish holiday of Hanukkah.
  • dreydlekh

    The plural form of the Yiddish word "spin," four-sided spinning tops played with during the Jewish holiday of Hanukkah.
  • Dvar

    Short for "dvar Torah," Hebrew for "word of Torah," a lesson or sermon based on the weekly reading of the Torah.
  • Dvar Torah

    Hebrew for "word of Torah," a lesson or sermon based on the weekly reading of the Torah.
  • Eretz Yisrael

    Hebrew for "Land of Israel," a biblical name for Israel.
  • eruv

    Hebrew for "mixture," a ritual enclosure that traditionally observant Jewish communities construct in their neighborhoods as a way to permit the transference of objects from one domain type to another. For example, it allows Jews to carry food, push strollers, etc. from their homes through public areas on the Sabbath and holidays, acts that otherwise would not by allowed by traditional Jewish law.
  • esrog

    Hebrew word for a yellow citron, used ritually in the holiday of Sukkot.
  • esrogim

    Hebrew plural word for yellow citrons, used ritually in the holiday of Sukkot.
  • etrog

    Hebrew word for a yellow citron, used ritually in the holiday of Sukkot.
  • etrogim

    Hebrew plural word for yellow citrons, used ritually in the holiday of Sukkot.
  • Eucharist

    In Christianity, the sacrament of Holy Communion, when wine and a wafer, symbolic of the blood and body of Jesus Christ, are consumed.
  • G-d

    God. In traditional Jewish circles, it is forbidden to write or say God's full Hebrew name. This custom has carried over into English by some, who write "God" without the vowel (o) and replace it with a hyphen. Some use variations of this, such as G!d or G@d.
  • gabbai

    Is a Hebrew word, sometimes used interchangeably with the Hebrew word "shamash," used to describe a person who assists in the running of synagogue services in some way.
  • gefilte fish

    Yiddish for "stuffed fish," a patty made of ground up varieties of fish, matzo meal and spices, boiled in fish broth. A popular dish on Passover, sometimes served on Shabbat and other holidays as well.
  • Gelt

    Yiddish for "money," usually refers to chocolate coins given on Hanukkah (and used as bets during the dreidel game).
  • Goy

    Yiddish for "gentile," or someone who is not Jewish. Some use this term with affection, however it's still largely understood to have a derogatory connotation.
  • goyim

    Yiddish for "gentiles," or someone who is not Jewish. Some use this term with affection, however it's still largely understood to have a derogatory connotation.
  • Goys

    Yiddish for "gentiles," or someone who is not Jewish. Some use this term with affection, however it's still largely understood to have a derogatory connotation.
  • gut shabbes

    Yiddish for "good Sabbath," a customary greeting leading into, and during, the Sabbath.
  • gut shabbos

    Yiddish for "good Sabbath," a customary greeting leading into, and during, the Sabbath.
  • gut vokh

    Yiddish for "good week," a customary greeting on Saturday evenings after the Sabbath ends (when the new week begins).
  • Gut Yontif

    Yiddish for "happy holiday."
  • Ha’Motzi

    Hebrew for "brings forth" or "expels," the first unique or identifying word of the blessing over bread ("...brings forth bread from the earth"). Some say this blessing over bread, others recite it as a catch-all before a meal.
  • Ha’Shem

    Hebrew for "The Name." Used as a substitute for the Hebrew name for God, which religious Jews are forbidden from uttering outside of prayer. ("This lovely dinner was provided by HaShem - and the Goldsteins!" or "If, HaShem willing, we arrive safely...")
  • Ha-Motzi

    Hebrew for "brings forth" or "expels," the first unique or identifying word of the blessing over bread ("...brings forth bread from the earth"). Some say this blessing over bread, others recite it as a catch-all before a meal.
  • Ha-shem

    Hebrew for "The Name." Used as a substitute for the Hebrew name for God, which religious Jews are forbidden from uttering outside of prayer. ("This lovely dinner was provided by HaShem - and the Goldsteins!" or "If, HaShem willing, we arrive safely...")
  • haftara

    A selection from the books of Prophets that is read following the weekly Torah portion. There is a Haftorah for each Torah portion.
  • haftarah

    A selection from the books of Prophets that is read following the weekly Torah portion. There is a Haftorah for each Torah portion.
  • Haftora

    A selection from the books of Prophets that is read following the weekly Torah portion. There is a Haftorah for each Torah portion.
  • Haftorah

    A selection from the books of Prophets that is read following the weekly Torah portion. There is a Haftorah for each Torah portion.
  • Hag Sameach

    Happy holiday--also chag sameach.
  • Hagaddah

    Hebrew for "telling," the text that outlines the order of the Passover seder. There are many, many versions of this book, which dates back almost 2,000 years. Because we are commanded to expand upon the story, the Haggadah contains ancient interpretations, as well as stage directions and explanations, for the Passover meal.
  • Hagaddahs

    Plural form of the Hebrew for "telling," it's the text that outlines the order of the Passover seder. There are many, many versions of this book, which dates back almost 2,000 years. Because we are commanded to expand upon the story, the Haggadah contains ancient interpretations, as well as stage directions and explanations, for the Passover meal.
  • Hagaddot

    Plural form of the Hebrew for "telling," it's the text that outlines the order of the Passover seder. There are many, many versions of this book, which dates back almost 2,000 years. Because we are commanded to expand upon the story, the Haggadah contains ancient interpretations, as well as stage directions and explanations, for the Passover meal.
  • Haggadah

    Hebrew for "telling," the text that outlines the order of the Passover seder. There are many, many versions of this book, which dates back almost 2,000 years. Because we are commanded to expand upon the story, the Haggadah contains ancient interpretations, as well as stage directions and explanations, for the Passover meal.
  • Haggadahs

    Plural form of the Hebrew for "telling," it's the text that outlines the order of the Passover seder. There are many, many versions of this book, which dates back almost 2,000 years. Because we are commanded to expand upon the story, the Haggadah contains ancient interpretations, as well as stage directions and explanations, for the Passover meal.
  • Haggadot

    Plural form of the Hebrew for "telling," it's the text that outlines the order of the Passover seder. There are many, many versions of this book, which dates back almost 2,000 years. Because we are commanded to expand upon the story, the Haggadah contains ancient interpretations, as well as stage directions and explanations, for the Passover meal.
  • halacha

    Hebrew for "Jewish law," it's the body of Jewish religious law including biblical law (those commandments found in the Torah), later Talmudic and rabbinic law, as well as customs and traditions.
  • halachic

    Derived from the Hebrew for "Jewish law," it's pertaining or according to the body of Jewish religious law including biblical law (those commandments found in the Torah), later Talmudic and rabbinic law, as well as customs and traditions.
  • Halachically

    Hebrew for "Jewish law," halacha is the body of Jewish religious law including biblical law (those commandments found in the Torah), later Talmudic and rabbinic law, as well as customs and traditions.
  • Halakha

    Hebrew for "Jewish law," it's the body of Jewish religious law including biblical law (those commandments found in the Torah), later Talmudic and rabbinic law, as well as customs and traditions.
  • halakhic

    Derived from the Hebrew for "Jewish law," it's pertaining or according to the body of Jewish religious law including biblical law (those commandments found in the Torah), later Talmudic and rabbinic law, as well as customs and traditions.
  • Halakhically

    Hebrew for "Jewish law," halakha is the body of Jewish religious law including biblical law (those commandments found in the Torah), later Talmudic and rabbinic law, as well as customs and traditions.
  • Hallah

    A bread that comes in a few different varieties; its most common variation is a braided egg bread, though there are water challahs that don't have eggs, and there are whole-wheat challahs which sometimes also don't have eggs. It is customary to being Sabbath and holiday meals by saying blessings and eating challah.
  • Hamantasch

    Yiddish for "Haman's pockets," and shaped after the three-corner hat of Haman (the villain of the Purim story), this is a triangular cookie with poppy seed, jam or fruit filling in the middle.
  • Hamantaschen

    Yiddish for "Haman's pockets," and shaped after the three-corner hat of Haman (the villain of the Purim story), these are triangular cookies with poppy seed, jam or fruit filling in the middle.
  • Hamantash

    Yiddish for "Haman's pockets," and shaped after the three-corner hat of Haman (the villain of the Purim story), this is a triangular cookie with poppy seed, jam or fruit filling in the middle.
  • Hamantashen

    Yiddish for "Haman's pockets," and shaped after the three-corner hat of Haman (the villain of the Purim story), these are triangular cookies with poppy seed, jam or fruit filling in the middle.
  • Hamentasch

    Yiddish for "Haman's pockets," and shaped after the three-corner hat of Haman (the villain of the Purim story), this is a triangular cookie with poppy seed, jam or fruit filling in the middle.
  • Hamentaschen

    Yiddish for "Haman's pockets," and shaped after the three-corner hat of Haman (the villain of the Purim story), these are triangular cookies with poppy seed, jam or fruit filling in the middle.
  • Hamentash

    Yiddish for "Haman's pockets," and shaped after the three-corner hat of Haman (the villain of the Purim story), this is a triangular cookie with poppy seed, jam or fruit filling in the middle.
  • hamentashen

    Yiddish for "Haman's pockets," and shaped after the three-corner hat of Haman, the villain of the Purim story, these are triangular cookies with poppy seed, jam or fruit filling in the middle.
  • Hametz

    Hebrew for "leavened," foods that are not kosher for Passover, such as bread and wheat-based products. It refers to products that are both made from one of five types of grain and have been combined with water and left to stand raw (rise) for longer than eighteen minutes.
  • HaMotzi

    Hebrew for "brings forth" or "expels," the first unique or identifying word of the blessing over bread ("...brings forth bread from the earth"). Some say this blessing over bread, others recite it as a catch-all before a meal.
  • Hannukah

    Hanukkah (known by many spellings) is an eight-day Jewish holiday commemorating the rededication of the Second Temple in Jerusalem at the time of the Maccabean Revolt of the 2nd Century BCE. It is marked by the lighting of a menorah and the eating of fried foods.
  • Hanuka

    Hanukkah (known by many spellings) is an eight-day Jewish holiday commemorating the rededication of the Second Temple in Jerusalem at the time of the Maccabean Revolt of the 2nd Century BCE. It is marked by the lighting of a menorah and the eating of fried foods.
  • Hanukah

    Hanukkah (known by many spellings) is an eight-day Jewish holiday commemorating the rededication of the Second Temple in Jerusalem at the time of the Maccabean Revolt of the 2nd Century BCE. It is marked by the lighting of a menorah and the eating of fried foods.
  • Hanukka

    Hanukkah (known by many spellings) is an eight-day Jewish holiday commemorating the rededication of the Second Temple in Jerusalem at the time of the Maccabean Revolt of the 2nd Century BCE. It is marked by the lighting of a menorah and the eating of fried foods.
  • Hanukkah

    Hanukkah (known by many spellings) is an eight-day Jewish holiday commemorating the rededication of the Second Temple in Jerusalem at the time of the Maccabean Revolt of the 2nd Century BCE. It is marked by the lighting of a menorah and the eating of fried foods.
  • Haroses

    Derived from the Hebrew word "cheres," which means clay, it's a mixture of fruit, nuts, and wine eaten as part of the Passover seder. Symbolizing the mortar that the Hebrew slaves used to build the cities for Pharaoh in Egypt, it's one of the symbolic food items on the seder plate.
  • haroset

    Derived from the Hebrew word "cheres," which means clay, it's a mixture of fruit, nuts, and wine eaten as part of the Passover seder. Symbolizing the mortar that the Hebrew slaves used to build the cities for Pharaoh in Egypt, it's one of the symbolic food items on the seder plate.
  • HaShem

    The Name in Hebrew. Used as a substitute for the Hebrew name for God, which religious Jews are forbidden from uttering outside of prayer.
  • HaShem

    Hebrew for "The Name." Used as a substitute for the Hebrew name for God, which religious Jews are forbidden from uttering outside of prayer. ("This lovely dinner was provided by HaShem - and the Goldsteins!" or "If, HaShem willing, we arrive safely...")
  • hasid

    Hebrew for "pious," commonly refers to a member of an Orthodox Jewish mystic movement founded in the 18th century in Eastern Europe by Baal Shem Tov that reacted against Talmudic learning and maintained that God's presence was in all of one's surroundings and that one should serve God in one's every deed and word.
  • hasidic

    Hebrew for "pious," commonly refers to a member of an Orthodox Jewish mystic movement founded in the 18th century in Eastern Europe by Baal Shem Tov that reacted against Talmudic learning and maintained that God's presence was in all of one's surroundings and that one should serve God in one's every deed and word.
  • Hatafas dam bris

    Hebrew for "drop of blood covenant," it is a ritual circumcision for those already circumcised. (Usually men who are converting to Judaism.)
  • Hatafat dam brit

    Hebrew for "drop of blood covenant," it is a ritual circumcision for those already circumcised. (Usually men who are converting to Judaism.)
  • Havdala

    Hebrew for "separation" or "distinction," the ceremony marking the end of the Sabbath on Saturday evenings.
  • Havdalah

    Ceremony marking the end of Shabbat.
  • Havdalah

    Hebrew for "separation" or "distinction," the ceremony marking the end of the Sabbath on Saturday evenings.
  • Havdalla

    Hebrew for "separation" or "distinction," the ceremony marking the end of the Sabbath on Saturday evenings.
  • Havdallah

    Hebrew for "separation" or "distinction," the ceremony marking the end of the Sabbath on Saturday evenings.
  • havura

    Hebrew for "fellowship," a lay-led group that meets for Shabbat or holiday prayer services, life cycle events, and/or Jewish learning or discussion.
  • havurah

    Hebrew for "fellowship," a lay-led group that meets for Shabbat or holiday prayer services, life cycle events, and/or Jewish learning or discussion.
  • hazan

    Hebrew for "cantor," a member of the Jewish clergy who leads a congregation in songful prayer.
  • hazzan

    Hebrew for "cantor," a member of the Jewish clergy who leads a congregation in songful prayer.
  • Hebrew

    A language of West Semitic origins, culturally considered to be the language of the Jewish people. Ancient or Classical Hebrew is the language of Jewish prayer or study. Modern Hebrew was developed in the late-19th and early 20th centuries as a revival language; today it is spoken by most Israelis.
  • hechscher

    Hebrew for "kosher approval," marking found on food and some kitchen products (like tin foil or dish soap) that shows the item has been certified kosher.
  • hechsher

    Hebrew for "kosher approval," marking found on food and some kitchen products (like tin foil or dish soap) that shows the item has been certified kosher.
  • hekhal

    The Sephardi term for the ark, a cabinet- or cupboard-like structure that houses the Torah(s) in a synagogue.
  • Heksher

    Hebrew for "kosher approval," marking found on food and some kitchen products (like tin foil or dish soap) that shows the item has been certified kosher.
  • hesed shel emes

    Hebrew for "true kindness," refers to burial of the dead.
  • Hesed shel emet

    Hebrew for "true kindness," refers to burial of the dead.
  • Hesped

    Hebrew for "eulogy."
  • Hol Ha’Moed

    Hebrew for "weekdays of the festival," refers to the intermediate days of Passover and Sukkot. For example, the first two days of Passover are a holiday, but the next days are not; on the first days, work is not permitted according to traditional Jewish law, but on the intermediate days work is permitted.
  • Hol HaMoed

    Hebrew for "weekdays of the festival," refers to the intermediate days of Passover and Sukkot. For example, the first two days of Passover are a holiday, but the next days are not; on the first days, work is not permitted according to traditional Jewish law, but on the intermediate days work is permitted.
  • holent

    Stew of beans, grains and meat. Traditional Shabbat dinner.
  • homentasch

    Yiddish for "Haman's pockets," and shaped after the three-corner hat of Haman (the villain of the Purim story), this is a triangular cookie with poppy seed, jam or fruit filling in the middle.
  • homentash

    Yiddish for "Haman's pockets," and shaped after the three-corner hat of Haman (the villain of the Purim story), this is a triangular cookie with poppy seed, jam or fruit filling in the middle.
  • hometz

    Hebrew for "leavened," foods that are not kosher for Passover, such as bread and wheat-based products. It refers to products that are both made from one of five types of grain and have been combined with water and left to stand raw (rise) for longer than eighteen minutes.
  • Hora

    Hebrew, derived from the Greek word for "dance," a variety of dances done in a circle, popular in Israel (and the Balkans).
  • horah

    Hebrew, derived from the Greek word for "dance," a variety of dances done in a circle, popular in Israel (and the Balkans).
  • humetz

    Hebrew for "leavened," foods that are not kosher for Passover, such as bread and wheat-based products. It refers to products that are both made from one of five types of grain and have been combined with water and left to stand raw (rise) for longer than eighteen minutes.
  • hupah

    Hebrew for "canopy" or "covering," the structure (open on all four sides) under which a Jewish wedding ceremony takes place. In its simplest for, it consists of a cloth, sheet, or tallit stretched or supported over four poles.
  • huppa

    Hebrew for "canopy" or "covering," the structure (open on all four sides) under which a Jewish wedding ceremony takes place. In its simplest for, it consists of a cloth, sheet, or tallit stretched or supported over four poles.
  • huppah

    A huppah--often spelled ?chuppah?--is a Jewish wedding canopy with four open sides. A Jewish wedding ceremony typically occurs under a huppah.
  • huppah

    Hebrew for "canopy" or "covering," the structure (open on all four sides) under which a Jewish wedding ceremony takes place. In its simplest for, it consists of a cloth, sheet, or tallit stretched or supported over four poles.
  • hutzpah

    A Yiddish word meaning audacity, for good or for bad; commonly used to imply something was gutsy. Derived from the Hebrew word for "insolence."
  • k’lal yisrael

    Hebrew for "All of Israel," a term used to describe and promote a sense of shared community and destiny between Jews around the world.
  • Kaddish

    Hebrew for "holy," a prayer found in Jewish prayer services. There are many versions of the Kaddish, the best known being the Mourner's Kaddish, said by mourners.
  • kasher

    Hebrew for "fit" (as in, "fit for consumption"), the action of making something kosher (like cleaning a kitchen).
  • kashrus

    Hebrew for "fit" (as in, "fit for consumption"), the Jewish dietary laws.
  • kashrut

    Hebrew for "fit" (as in, "fit for consumption"), the Jewish dietary laws.
  • Kavanna

    Hebrew for "intention," referring to having the proper mindset necessary for carrying out rituals or the commandments.
  • Kavannah

    Hebrew for "intention," referring to having the proper mindset necessary for carrying out rituals or the commandments.
  • Kedusha

    Hebrew for "holiness," refers to the prayer of holiness (the third section of the Amidah, or The Standing Prayer).
  • Keriah

    Hebrew for "tearing," refers to the custom of mourners tearing a garment (usually a shirt, jacket or vest) or a ribbon (and affixing it to one's garment) that is worn throughout the shiva period (the first stage of mourning).
  • keriyah

    Hebrew for "tearing," refers to the custom of mourners tearing a garment (usually a shirt, jacket or vest) or a ribbon (and affixing it to one's garment) that is worn throughout the shiva period (the first stage of mourning).
  • Keruv

    Hebrew for "bringing close," a term meaning Jewish outreach.
  • ketuba

    Hebrew for "document," a legal document that is both a prenuptial agreement and a certification that a Jewish marriage has taken place.
  • Ketubah

    Hebrew for "document," a legal document that is both a prenuptial agreement and a certification that a Jewish marriage has taken place.
  • Ketubos

    Plural form of the Hebrew word "ketubah," meaning "document," a legal document that is both a prenuptial agreement and a certification that a Jewish marriage has taken place.
  • Ketubot

    Plural form of the Hebrew word "ketubah," meaning "document," a legal document that is both a prenuptial agreement and a certification that a Jewish marriage has taken place.
  • Kevod hamet

    Hebrew for "respect for the dead," an important concept throughout Jewish bereavement rituals and customs.
  • Kiddush

    Hebrew for "sanctification," a blessing recited over wine or grape juice to sanctify the Sabbath and Jewish holidays.
  • kiddusha

    Hebrew for "holiness," refers to the prayer of holiness (the third section of the Amidah, or The Standing Prayer).
  • Kiddushin

    Hebrew for "sanctification," Jewish marriage is often referred to as Kiddushin, as one partner (traditionally, the bride) becomes "sanctified" (dedicated) to the other partner (traditionally, the groom).
  • kipa

    Hebrew for "skullcap," also known in Yiddish as a "yarmulke," the small, circular headcovering worn by male Jews in most synagogues, and female Jews in more liberal congregations. Traditional Jews were kippot (plural of kippah) all the time.
  • kipot

    Plural of "kippah," Hebrew for "skullcap," also known in Yiddish as a "yarmulke," the small, circular headcovering worn by male Jews in most synagogues, and female Jews in more liberal congregations. Traditional Jews were kippot (plural of kippah) all the time.
  • Kippah

    Hebrew for "skullcap," also known in Yiddish as a "yarmulke," the small, circular headcovering worn by male Jews in most synagogues, and female Jews in more liberal congregations. Traditional Jews were kippot (plural of kippah) all the time.
  • kippot

    Plural of "kippah," Hebrew for "skullcap," also known in Yiddish as a "yarmulke," the small, circular headcovering worn by male Jews in most synagogues, and female Jews in more liberal congregations. Traditional Jews were kippot (plural of kippah) all the time.
  • kiruv

    Hebrew for "bringing close," a term meaning Jewish outreach.
  • klal Yisrael

    Hebrew for "All of Israel," a term used to describe and promote a sense of shared community and destiny between Jews around the world.
  • knish

    Yiddish word for a stuffed pastry, typically baked and round, filled with potato, meat or kasha.
  • knishe

    Yiddish word for a stuffed pastry, typically baked and round, filled with potato, meat or kasha.
  • Kol Nidre

    Aramaic for "all vows," the opening words and name of the first prayer that begins the evening service on Yom Kippur. Kol Nidre has come to refer to the name of the evening service itself.
  • kollel

    Hebrew for a "gathering," usually refers to a gathering or collection of scholars, or an institute for advanced Talmud study.
  • Kosher

    Hebrew for "fit" (as in, "fit for consumption"), the Jewish dietary laws.
  • Kreplach

    Plural form of the Yiddish word "krepl," dumplings filled with meat and usually cooked in soup.
  • Kreplekh

    Plural form of the Yiddish word "krepl," dumplings filled with meat and usually cooked in soup.
  • kria

    Hebrew for "tearing," refers to the custom of mourners tearing a garment (usually a shirt, jacket or vest) or a ribbon (and affixing it to one's garment) that is worn throughout the shiva period (the first stage of mourning).
  • Kriah

    Hebrew for "tearing," refers to the custom of mourners tearing a garment (usually a shirt, jacket or vest) or a ribbon (and affixing it to one's garment) that is worn throughout the shiva period (the first stage of mourning).
  • kugel

    Yiddish word for a savory or sweet pudding made from either noodles, potatoes or matzah.
  • kuggel

    Yiddish word for a savory or sweet pudding made from either noodles, potatoes or matzah.
  • kvater

    Yiddish for "godfather," often the individual who carries a baby in for his bris (circumcision).
  • kvaterin

    Yiddish for "godmother," often the individual who carries a baby in for his bris (circumcision).
  • Kvatter

    Yiddish for "godfather," often the individual who carries a baby in for his bris (circumcision).
  • Kvatterin

    Yiddish for "godmother," often the individual who carries a baby in for his bris (circumcision).
  • L’chaim

    Hebrew for "to life," usually said as a celebratory toast. When couples become engaged, a celebration for them is often called a "l'chayim" as friends and family will offer the couple toasts for a happy life together.
  • l’chayim

    Hebrew for "to life," usually said as a celebratory toast. When couples become engaged, a celebration for them is often called a "l'chayim" as friends and family will offer the couple toasts for a happy life together.
  • l’chayyim

    Hebrew for "to life," usually said as a celebratory toast. When couples become engaged, a celebration for them is often called a "l'chayim" as friends and family will offer the couple toasts for a happy life together.
  • l’dor v’dor

    Hebrew for "from generation to generation."
  • l’dor vador

    Hebrew for "from generation to generation."
  • l’haim

    Hebrew for "to life," usually said as a celebratory toast. When couples become engaged, a celebration for them is often called a "l'chayim" as friends and family will offer the couple toasts for a happy life together.
  • l’hayim

    Hebrew for "to life," usually said as a celebratory toast. When couples become engaged, a celebration for them is often called a "l'chayim" as friends and family will offer the couple toasts for a happy life together.
  • l’shana tova

    Hebrew for "to a good year," a typical greeting on Rosh Hashanah.
  • l’shana tovah

    Hebrew for "to a good year," a typical greeting on Rosh Hashanah.
  • l’shanah tova

    Hebrew for "to a good year," a typical greeting on Rosh Hashanah.
  • l’shanah tovah

    Hebrew for "to a good year," a typical greeting on Rosh Hashanah.
  • Ladino

    A language, also known as Judaeo-Spanish or Judezmo, once widely used by Sephardic communities, but now close to extinction. It is influenced by Hebrew, Arabic, Spanish and Turkish. It is comparable to the language of many Ashkenazi communities, Yiddish.
  • Lag b’Omer

    Hebrew for "33rd [day] of the Omer," a minor Jewish holiday that falls 33 days after the start of Passover.
  • Lag BaOmer

    Hebrew for "33rd [day] of the Omer," a minor Jewish holiday that falls 33 days after the start of Passover.
  • latkah

    Yiddish word for a potato pancake, traditionally eaten during Hanukkah.
  • latkahs

    Yiddish word for a potato pancake, traditionally eaten during Hanukkah.
  • latke

    Yiddish word for a potato pancake, traditionally eaten during Hanukkah.
  • latkeh

    Yiddish word for a potato pancake, traditionally eaten during Hanukkah.
  • latkehs

    Yiddish word for a potato pancake, traditionally eaten during Hanukkah.
  • Latkes

    Yiddish word for a potato pancake, traditionally eaten during Hanukkah.
  • leyn

    Derived from the Yiddish word "leyenen," meaning "read," it refers to the act of reading (chanting) Torah.
  • M’ark

    Mark Testing the glo'assary.
    L"ine"2.
  • m’shbeirach

    Hebrew for "May He Who blessed," the first words of the prayer of the same name. Traditionally said in synagogue during the Torah service, a holistic prayer for physical and spiritual healing, asking for blessing, compassion, restoration and strength.
  • m’shberach

    Hebrew for "May He Who blessed," the first words of the prayer of the same name. Traditionally said in synagogue during the Torah service, a holistic prayer for physical and spiritual healing, asking for blessing, compassion, restoration and strength.
  • ma nishtana

    Hebrew for "what is different," the first words of the Four Questions, traditionally recited by the youngest child at the Passover seder.
  • ma nishtanah

    Hebrew for "what is different," the first words of the Four Questions, traditionally recited by the youngest child at the Passover seder.
  • Ma’ariv

    Also known as Ariv, the evening prayer service.
  • ma’asim tovim

    Hebrew for "good deeds."
  • ma’oz tsur

    Hebrew for "Stronghold of Rock" (more commonly known in English as "Rock of Ages"), a Jewish liturgical poem sung on Hanukkah after lighting the candles.
  • Ma’oz Tzur

    Hebrew for "Stronghold of Rock" (more commonly known in English as "Rock of Ages"), a Jewish liturgical poem sung on Hanukkah after lighting the candles.
  • maariv

    Also known as Ariv, the evening prayer service.
  • Maasim tovim

    Hebrew for "good deeds."
  • magen david

    Hebrew for "shield of David," it is more commonly recognized as the star of David, a six-point star. The symbol has origins in the Torah, and has been used as a symbol of Jewish identity and Judaism in Europe since the Middle Ages.
  • mah nishtana

    Hebrew for "what is different," the first words of the Four Questions, traditionally recited by the youngest child at the Passover seder.
  • mah nishtanah

    Hebrew for "what is different," the first words of the Four Questions, traditionally recited by the youngest child at the Passover seder.
  • Maoz Tsur

    Hebrew for "Stronghold of Rock" (more commonly known in English as "Rock of Ages"), a Jewish liturgical poem sung on Hanukkah after lighting the candles.
  • Maoz Tzur

    Hebrew for "Stronghold of Rock" (more commonly known in English as "Rock of Ages"), a Jewish liturgical poem sung on Hanukkah after lighting the candles.
  • Maror

    Hebrew for "bitter," one of the ritual food items on the Passover seder plate. Commonly represented by horseradish or romaine lettuce.
  • Mass

    In Christianity, the celebration of the Eucharist (the sacrament of Holy Communion).
  • matza

    Hebrew word for an unleavened bread, traditionally eaten during the holiday of Passover.
  • matza brei

    Yiddish for "fried matzah," a common Passover breakfast dish that can be savory or sweet, ranging in style from closer to an omelette to closer to French toast, made of matzah and egg.
  • matza brie

    Yiddish for "fried matzah," a common Passover breakfast dish that can be savory or sweet, ranging in style from closer to an omelette to closer to French toast, made of matzah and egg.
  • Matzah

    Hebrew word for an unleavened bread, traditionally eaten during the holiday of Passover.
  • matzah brei

    Yiddish for "fried matzah," a common Passover breakfast dish that can be savory or sweet, ranging in style from closer to an omelette to closer to French toast, made of matzah and egg.
  • matzah brie

    Yiddish for "fried matzah," a common Passover breakfast dish that can be savory or sweet, ranging in style from closer to an omelette to closer to French toast, made of matzah and egg.
  • matzo

    Hebrew word for an unleavened bread, traditionally eaten during the holiday of Passover.
  • matzo brei

    Yiddish for "fried matzah," a common Passover breakfast dish that can be savory or sweet, ranging in style from closer to an omelette to closer to French toast, made of matzah and egg.
  • matzoh

    Hebrew word for an unleavened bread, traditionally eaten during the holiday of Passover.
  • matzoh brei

    Yiddish for "fried matzah," a common Passover breakfast dish that can be savory or sweet, ranging in style from closer to an omelette to closer to French toast, made of matzah and egg.
  • matzoh brie

    Yiddish for "fried matzah," a common Passover breakfast dish that can be savory or sweet, ranging in style from closer to an omelette to closer to French toast, made of matzah and egg.
  • matzos

    Hebrew word for an unleavened bread, traditionally eaten during the holiday of Passover.
  • matzos brei

    Yiddish for "fried matzah," a common Passover breakfast dish that can be savory or sweet, ranging in style from closer to an omelette to closer to French toast, made of matzah and egg.
  • mazal tov

    Hebrew and Yiddish for "good luck," a phrase used to express congratulations for happy and significant occasions.
  • mazel tov

    Hebrew and Yiddish for "good luck," a phrase used to express congratulations for happy and significant occasions.
  • mechitza

    A divider (such as a curtain or barrier) that separates men and women at prayer.
  • mechitzah

    A divider (such as a curtain or barrier) that separates men and women at prayer.
  • Megillah

    Hebrew for "scroll," usually refers to the Scroll of Esther ("Megillat Esther"), the biblical book read on the holiday of Purim.
  • Megillas Esther

    Hebrew for "Scroll of Esther" (or, Book of Esther), the biblical book read on the holiday of Purim.
  • megillat Esther

    Hebrew for "Scroll of Esther" (or, Book of Esther), the biblical book read on the holiday of Purim.
  • mehitza

    A divider (such as a curtain or barrier) that separates men and women at prayer.
  • mehitzah

    A divider (such as a curtain or barrier) that separates men and women at prayer.
  • mench

    Yiddish term for an honorable, decent person, usually means "a person of integrity and honor," someone of good character and a deep sense of what is right.
  • menora

    Hebrew for "candelabrum" or "lamp," it usually refers to the nine-branched candelabrum that is lit for the holiday of Hanukkah. (A seven-branched candelabrum, a symbol of the ancient Temple in Jerusalem, is a symbol of Judaism and is included in Israel's coat of arms.)
  • Menorah

    Hebrew for "candelabrum" or "lamp," it usually refers to the nine-branched candelabrum that is lit for the holiday of Hanukkah. (A seven-branched candelabrum, a symbol of the ancient Temple in Jerusalem, is a symbol of Judaism and is included in Israel's coat of arms.)
  • mensch

    Yiddish term for an honorable, decent person, usually means "a person of integrity and honor," someone of good character and a deep sense of what is right.
  • mentsh

    Yiddish term for an honorable, decent person, usually means "a person of integrity and honor," someone of good character and a deep sense of what is right.
  • meshugah

    Yiddish for "crazy."
  • meshugas

    Yiddish for "craziness."
  • meshuge

    Yiddish for "crazy."
  • meshugeneh

    Yiddish for "crazy."
  • meshugener

    Yiddish for "crazy person."
  • meshuggeneh

    Yiddish for "crazy."
  • mezuza

    Hebrew for "doorpost," it now refers to a small box containing a scroll (of the Hebrew text of the Shema prayer) which is affixed to the doorposts of Jewish homes. Strictly speaking, mezuzah only refers to the scroll itself, not the case in which it's housed.
  • Mezuzah

    Hebrew for "doorpost," it now refers to a small box containing a scroll (of the Hebrew text of the Shema prayer) which is affixed to the doorposts of Jewish homes. Strictly speaking, mezuzah only refers to the scroll itself, not the case in which it's housed.
  • mezuzot

    Plural form of "mezuzah" (Hebrew for "doorpost"), it now refers to a small box containing a scroll (of the Hebrew text of the Shema prayer) which is affixed to the doorposts of Jewish homes. Strictly speaking, mezuzah only refers to the scroll itself, not the case in which it's housed.
  • Mi Shabeirach

    Hebrew for "May He Who blessed," the first words of the prayer of the same name. Traditionally said in synagogue during the Torah service, a holistic prayer for physical and spiritual healing, asking for blessing, compassion, restoration and strength.
  • Mi Shebeirach

    Hebrew for "May He Who blessed," the first words of the prayer of the same name. Traditionally said in synagogue during the Torah service, a holistic prayer for physical and spiritual healing, asking for blessing, compassion, restoration and strength.
  • mi sheberach

    Hebrew for "May He Who blessed," the first words of the prayer of the same name. Traditionally said in synagogue during the Torah service, a holistic prayer for physical and spiritual healing, asking for blessing, compassion, restoration and strength.
  • mi-shebeirach

    Hebrew for "May He Who blessed," the first words of the prayer of the same name. Traditionally said in synagogue during the Torah service, a holistic prayer for physical and spiritual healing, asking for blessing, compassion, restoration and strength.
  • mi-sheberach

    Hebrew for "May He Who blessed," the first words of the prayer of the same name. Traditionally said in synagogue during the Torah service, a holistic prayer for physical and spiritual healing, asking for blessing, compassion, restoration and strength.
  • Midrash

    Hebrew for "story," a way of interpreting biblical stories that often fills in the gaps left in the biblical narrative and expands on events of characters that are only hinted at.
  • Mikvah

    Hebrew for "collection," referring to the "collection of water," is a bath used for the purpose of ritual immersion in Judaism. Today it is used as part of the traditional procedure for converting to Judaism, by Jews who follow the laws of ritual (body) purity, and sometimes for making kitchen utensils kosher.
  • mikveh

    Hebrew for "collection," referring to the "collection of water," is a bath used for the purpose of ritual immersion in Judaism. Today it is used as part of the traditional procedure for converting to Judaism, by Jews who follow the laws of ritual (body) purity, and sometimes for making kitchen utensils kosher.
  • mincha

    The afternoon prayer service.
  • minchah

    The afternoon prayer service.
  • minhag

    A custom or accepted tradition or group of traditions in Judaism. Plural is "minhagim."
  • minhagim

    A custom or accepted tradition or group of traditions in Judaism. Singular is "minhag."
  • Minyan

    Hebrew for "count," it refers to the quorum of ten Jewish adults (in some communities only men are counted; in others both men and women) required to hold a Torah service, recite some communal prayers, and the home-based recitation of the Kaddish. Minyan may also now refer to group that meets for prayer service, similar to a synagogue's congregation or a havurah.
  • mishabeirach

    Hebrew for "May He Who blessed," the first words of the prayer of the same name. Traditionally said in synagogue during the Torah service, a holistic prayer for physical and spiritual healing, asking for blessing, compassion, restoration and strength.
  • mishebeirach

    Hebrew for "May He Who blessed," the first words of the prayer of the same name. Traditionally said in synagogue during the Torah service, a holistic prayer for physical and spiritual healing, asking for blessing, compassion, restoration and strength.
  • mishna

    Hebrew for "repetition" (from the verb meaning "to study and review"), it refers to the first major written redaction of the Jewish oral traditions ("Oral Torah"). Mishnah is the first post-biblical collection of Jewish legal materials, and the primary building block of the Talmud (the major collection of Jewish law), as interpreted by the rabbis.
  • Mishnah

    Hebrew for "repetition" (from the verb meaning "to study and review"), it refers to the first major written redaction of the Jewish oral traditions ("Oral Torah"). Mishnah is the first post-biblical collection of Jewish legal materials, and the primary building block of the Talmud (the major collection of Jewish law), as interpreted by the rabbis.
  • mitzva

    Hebrew for "commandment," it has two meanings. The first are the commandments given in the Torah. ("You should obey the mitzvah of honoring your parents!") The second is a good deed. ("Helping her carry her groceries home was such a mitzvah!")
  • Mitzvah

    Hebrew for "commandment," it has two meanings. The first are the commandments given in the Torah. ("You should obey the mitzvah of honoring your parents!") The second is a good deed. ("Helping her carry her groceries home was such a mitzvah!")
  • mitzvahs

    Plural form of the Hebrew word "mitzvah" which means "commandment," it has two meanings. The first are the commandments given in the Torah. ("You should obey the mitzvah of honoring your parents!") The second is a good deed. ("Helping her carry her groceries home was such a mitzvah!")
  • mitzvas

    Plural form of the Hebrew word "mitzvah" which means "commandment," it has two meanings. The first are the commandments given in the Torah. ("You should obey the mitzvah of honoring your parents!") The second is a good deed. ("Helping her carry her groceries home was such a mitzvah!")
  • mitzvos

    Plural form of the Hebrew word "mitzvah" which means "commandment," it has two meanings. The first are the commandments given in the Torah. ("You should obey the mitzvah of honoring your parents!") The second is a good deed. ("Helping her carry her groceries home was such a mitzvah!")
  • mitzvot

    Plural form of the Hebrew word "mitzvah" which means "commandment," it has two meanings. The first are the commandments given in the Torah. ("You should obey the mitzvah of honoring your parents!") The second is a good deed. ("Helping her carry her groceries home was such a mitzvah!")
  • mitzvoth

    Plural form of the Hebrew word "mitzvah" which means "commandment," it has two meanings. The first are the commandments given in the Torah. ("You should obey the mitzvah of honoring your parents!") The second is a good deed. ("Helping her carry her groceries home was such a mitzvah!")
  • Mizrachi

    Hebrew for "eastern," the term refers to Jews descended from the Jewish communities of the Middle East, North Africa and the Caucasus. The term Mizrahi is used in Israel in the language of politics, media and some social scientists for Jews from the Arab world and adjacent, primarily Muslim-majority countries.
  • Mizrahi

    Hebrew for "eastern," the term refers to Jews descended from the Jewish communities of the Middle East, North Africa and the Caucasus. The term Mizrahi is used in Israel in the language of politics, media and some social scientists for Jews from the Arab world and adjacent, primarily Muslim-majority countries.
  • Mogein Dovid

    Hebrew for "shield of David," it is more commonly recognized as the star of David, a six-point star. The symbol has origins in the Torah, and has been used as a symbol of Jewish identity and Judaism in Europe since the Middle Ages.
  • Mohel

    Hebrew for "circumciser" (Yiddish term is "moyel"), the person who performs a ritual circumcision. The feminine form is "mohelet."
  • mohelet

    Hebrew for "circumciser," the person who performs a ritual circumcision. The masculine form is "mohel." (Yiddish term is "moyel.")
  • motzi

    Hebrew for "brings forth" or "expels," the first unique or identifying word of the blessing over bread ("...brings forth bread from the earth"). Some say this blessing over bread, others recite it as a catch-all before a meal.
  • Moyel

    Yiddish for "circumciser," the person who performs a ritual circumcision. The Hebrew masculine form is "mohel," the Hebrew feminine is "mohelet."
  • NCSY

    National Conference of Synagogue Youth, the youth group of Judaism's Orthodox in the United States, Canada, Israel and Chile. It offers local and regional Shabbat programming, summer programs and post-high school programs.
  • Ne’ila

    Hebrew for "locking," the concluding prayer service on Yom Kippur. The name alludes to the closing of both the holiday and the final chance for prayers of repentance. The service ends with the blowing of the shofar.
  • Ne’ilah

    Hebrew for "locking," the concluding prayer service on Yom Kippur. The name alludes to the closing of both the holiday and the final chance for prayers of repentance. The service ends with the blowing of the shofar.
  • Neila

    Hebrew for "locking," the concluding prayer service on Yom Kippur. The name alludes to the closing of both the holiday and the final chance for prayers of repentance. The service ends with the blowing of the shofar.
  • Neilah

    Hebrew for "locking," the concluding prayer service on Yom Kippur. The name alludes to the closing of both the holiday and the final chance for prayers of repentance. The service ends with the blowing of the shofar.
  • neshama

    Hebrew for "soul" or "spirit," the word literally means "breath." In modern Judaism, it is believed that a person receives their soul from God with their first breath (based on Genesis 2:7).
  • neshamah

    Hebrew for "soul" or "spirit," the word literally means "breath." In modern Judaism, it is believed that a person receives their soul from God with their first breath (based on Genesis 2:7).
  • NFTY

    North American Federation of Temple Youth, the youth group of Judaism's Reform movement in North America. It offers local and regional youth groups, summer programs and post-high school programs.
  • nichum aveilim

    Hebrew for "condolence of mourning," a visit made to the mourners during the first week of mourning (the period known as shiva). This is also referred to as "making a shiva call" and is considered a mitzvah (a good deed or commandment).
  • Nichum avelim

    Hebrew for "condolence of mourning," a visit made to the mourners during the first week of mourning (the period known as shiva). This is also referred to as "making a shiva call" and is considered a mitzvah (a good deed or commandment).
  • Omer

    Hebrew term for a unit of dry measure, it was used to measure barley and is sometimes translated as "sheaf" (as in, "sheaf of barley"). Omer now refers to the period of 49 days from Passover to Shavuot. Today, instead of bringing an omer of barley to sacrifice, the days are counted ("counting the Omer"). It's also a period of semi-mourning, when traditional Jews will refrain from partying, dancing, listening to live music, or cutting their hair.
  • Oneg Shabbat

    Hebrew for "Sabbath joy," the term for the light refreshments served after a Shabbat service.
  • Oznei Haman

    Hebrew for "Haman's ears," these fried pieces of dough, shaped to look somewhat like an ear, and made with orange blossom water and orange peel, are drizzled with rich sugar syrup. They are a Sephardi treat for the holiday of Purim.
  • parasha

    Hebrew for "portion," one of 54 sections of the Torah read, during Shabbat services, in order on a weekly basis throughout the year.
  • parashas

    Plural form of "parashah," Hebrew for "portion." One of 54 sections of the Torah read, during Shabbat services, in order on a weekly basis throughout the year.
  • parashot

    Plural form of "parashah," Hebrew for "portion." One of 54 sections of the Torah read, during Shabbat services, in order on a weekly basis throughout the year.
  • parsha

    Hebrew for "portion," one of 54 sections of the Torah read, during Shabbat services, in order on a weekly basis throughout the year.
  • parshah

    Hebrew for "portion," one of 54 sections of the Torah read, during Shabbat services, in order on a weekly basis throughout the year.
  • parshahs

    Plural form of "parashah," Hebrew for "portion." One of 54 sections of the Torah read, during Shabbat services, in order on a weekly basis throughout the year.
  • parshas

    Plural form of "parashah," Hebrew for "portion." One of 54 sections of the Torah read, during Shabbat services, in order on a weekly basis throughout the year.
  • parshot

    Plural form of "parashah," Hebrew for "portion." One of 54 sections of the Torah read, during Shabbat services, in order on a weekly basis throughout the year.
  • Passover

    The spring holiday commemorating the Exodus of the Jews from slavery in Egypt. The Hebrew name is "Pesach."
  • payos

    Hebrew for "sidelock" or "sidecurls," derived from the Hebrew word "pe'eh," meaning "corner" or "side," these are locks of hair that some Orthodox boys and men refrain from cutting or shaving.
  • payot

    Hebrew for "sidelock" or "sidecurls," derived from the Hebrew word "pe'eh," meaning "corner" or "side," these are locks of hair that some Orthodox boys and men refrain from cutting or shaving.
  • Pesach

    Hebrew for "Passover," the spring holiday commemorating the Exodus of the Jews from slavery in Egypt.
  • peye

    Yiddish for "sidelock" or "sidecurls," derived from the Hebrew word "pe'eh," meaning "corner" or "side," these are locks of hair that some Orthodox boys and men refrain from cutting or shaving.
  • peyeh

    Yiddish for "sidelock" or "sidecurls," derived from the Hebrew word "pe'eh," meaning "corner" or "side," these are locks of hair that some Orthodox boys and men refrain from cutting or shaving.
  • peyes

    Hebrew for "sidelock" or "sidecurls," derived from the Hebrew word "pe'eh," meaning "corner" or "side," these are locks of hair that some Orthodox boys and men refrain from cutting or shaving.
  • peyos

    Hebrew for "sidelock" or "sidecurls," derived from the Hebrew word "pe'eh," meaning "corner" or "side," these are locks of hair that some Orthodox boys and men refrain from cutting or shaving.
  • peyot

    Hebrew for "sidelock" or "sidecurls," derived from the Hebrew word "pe'eh," meaning "corner" or "side," these are locks of hair that some Orthodox boys and men refrain from cutting or shaving.
  • Peysakh

    Yiddish for "Passover," the spring holiday commemorating the Exodus of the Jews from slavery in Egypt.
  • Peysekh

    Yiddish for "Passover," the spring holiday commemorating the Exodus of the Jews from slavery in Egypt.
  • pikua ha nefesh

    Saving a soul or life. In Jewish tradition, this consideration overrides all others.
  • pikua hanefesh

    Hebrew for "saving a life," a principle in Jewish law that the preservation of human life overrides virtually any other religious consideration.
  • pikuach ha’nefesh

    Hebrew for "saving a life," a principle in Jewish law that the preservation of human life overrides virtually any other religious consideration.
  • Pikuach Nefesh

    Hebrew for "saving a life," a principle in Jewish law that the preservation of human life overrides virtually any other religious consideration.
  • Pikuah ha nefesh

    Hebrew for "saving a life," a principle in Jewish law that the preservation of human life overrides virtually any other religious consideration.
  • Pikuah hanefesh

    Hebrew for "saving a life," a principle in Jewish law that the preservation of human life overrides virtually any other religious consideration.
  • Pikuah nefesh

    Hebrew for "saving a life," a principle in Jewish law that the preservation of human life overrides virtually any other religious consideration.
  • Pirkei Avos

    Hebrew for "Chapters of the Fathers," and commonly known as "Ethics of the Fathers," a compilation of ethical teachings of the rabbis of the Mishnaic period. Included in the Mishnah, it's the only tractate dealing exclusively with ethical and moral principles; there is little or no Jewish law included in these teachings.
  • Pirkei Avot

    Hebrew for "Chapters of the Fathers," and commonly known as "Ethics of the Fathers," a compilation of ethical teachings of the rabbis of the Mishnaic period. Included in the Mishnah, it's the only tractate dealing exclusively with ethical and moral principles; there is little or no Jewish law included in these teachings.
  • Pirkei Avoth

    Hebrew for "Chapters of the Fathers," and commonly known as "Ethics of the Fathers," a compilation of ethical teachings of the rabbis of the Mishnaic period. Included in the Mishnah, it's the only tractate dealing exclusively with ethical and moral principles; there is little or no Jewish law included in these teachings.
  • posek

    Someone who makes Jewish legal decisions, interprets Jewish law ("halakha"). Plural is "poskim."
  • poskim

    Someone who makes Jewish legal decisions, interprets Jewish law ("halakha"). Singular is "posek."
  • Purim

    Hebrew for "lots," referring to the lots cast by Haman, the story's antagonist, to determine the date on which to kill the Jewish people. It's a spring holiday commemorating the Jewish people's triumph. The story is told through the biblical Book of Esther; the namesake heroine, a Jewish woman, marries the Persian king. Their interfaith relationship is central to the story.
  • rabbi

    Hebrew for "my master," the term refers to a spiritual leader and teacher of Torah. Often, but not always, a rabbi is the leader of a synagogue congregation.
  • rav

    Hebrew for "master," the term refers to a spiritual leader and teacher of Torah. Often, but not always, a rabbi is the leader of a synagogue congregation. Another word for "rabbi."
  • rebbe

    Yiddish for "my master," derived from the Hebrew word "rabbi," the term refers to a spiritual leader and teacher of Torah. Often, but not always, a rabbi is the leader of a synagogue congregation. In some Orthodox communities, the title refers to the leader or founder of a particular hasidic movement (for example, the Lubavitcher Hasids refer to their rabbi as rebbe).
  • rosh hashana

    Hebrew for "Head of the Year," the Jewish New Year. With Yom Kippur, known as the High Holy Days.
  • Rosh Hashanah

    Hebrew for "Head of the Year," the Jewish New Year. With Yom Kippur, known as the High Holy Days.
  • rugelach

    Yiddish term for a rolled pastry, often filled with chocolate or nuts, cinnamon, apricot or other flavors, and usually shaped like small crescent rolls.
  • Sandek

    Hebrew for ?godfather,? the word is specific to the role of holding the baby during a brit milah ceremony.
  • Sandeket

    Female version of the Hebrew word "sandek," which means ?godfather,? the word is specific to the role of holding the baby during a brit milah ceremony.
  • Se’udah

    Hebrew for "meal."
  • Seder

    Hebrew for "order," refers to the traditional course of events, or service, surrounding the Passover and Tu Bishvat meals.
  • Sepharad

    Of the culture of Jews with family origins in Spain, Portugal or North Africa.
  • sephardi

    Having Jewish family origins in Spain, Portugal or North Africa. The term literally means "Spanish" in Hebrew.
  • sephardic

    Of the culture of Jews with family origins in Spain, Portugal or North Africa.
  • sephardim

    Jews with family origins in Spain, Portugal or North Africa.
  • seudah

    Hebrew for "meal."
  • seudat

    Hebrew for "meal."
  • sevivon

    Hebrew for "spinning top," the four-sided toy played with during the Jewish holiday of Hanukkah is more commonly known by its Yiddish name, "dreidel."
  • Sh’hekhiyanu

    Hebrew for "Who has given us life," part of a blessing thanking God for bringing us to a special or new moment.
  • sh’ma

    Hebrew for "hear," the first word and name of the central Jewish prayer and statement of faith.
  • Shabbat

    The Jewish Sabbath, from sunset on Friday to nightfall on Saturday.
  • Shabbat shalom

    Hebrew for "Sabbath [of] peace," a greeting on the Jewish Sabbath.
  • shabbes

    The Jewish Sabbath, from sunset on Friday to nightfall on Saturday.
  • shabbos

    The Jewish Sabbath, from sunset on Friday to nightfall on Saturday.
  • shadchan

    Hebrew for "matchmaker," someone who carries out a "shiddukh" (match).
  • shadkhan

    Hebrew for "matchmaker," someone who carries out a "shiddukh" (match).
  • shadkhn

    Hebrew for "matchmaker," someone who carries out a "shiddukh" (match).
  • Shalom Rav

    Hebrew for "great peace," the prayer for peace at the end of the traditional evening liturgy.
  • Shamash

    Hebrew for "helper," a candle used to light all the other candles in the Hanukkah menorah.
  • shana tova

    Hebrew for "a good year," a typical greeting on Rosh Hashanah.
  • shana tovah

    Hebrew for "a good year," a typical greeting on Rosh Hashanah.
  • shanah tova

    Hebrew for "a good year," a typical greeting on Rosh Hashanah.
  • Shanah tovah

    Hebrew for "a good year," a typical greeting on Rosh Hashanah.
  • Shavuah Tov

    Hebrew for "a good week," a typical greeting on Saturday night, after Havdalah, as the new week starts.
  • Shavuot

    A Summer holiday commemorating the receiving of the Torah on Mount Sinai, it is also known as the Feast of Weeks, as it comes seven weeks after Passover begins.
  • Shehecheyanu

    Hebrew for "Who has given us life," part of a blessing thanking God for bringing us to a special or new moment.
  • shema

    Hebrew for "hear," the first word and name of the central Jewish prayer and statement of faith.
  • Sheva berachot

    Hebrew for "the seven blessings," also known as birkot nissuin ("the wedding blessings"), blessings that are recited for a couple as part of their marriage ceremony.
  • sheva brachos

    Hebrew for "the seven blessings," also known as birkot nissuin ("the wedding blessings"), blessings that are recited for a couple as part of their marriage ceremony.
  • Sheva brachot

    Hebrew for "the seven blessings," also known as birkot nissuin ("the wedding blessings"), blessings that are recited for a couple as part of their marriage ceremony.
  • shidduch

    Hebrew for "match," as in a couple that has been set up.
  • shidduchim

    Hebrew for "matches," as in couples that have been set up.
  • shiddukh

    Hebrew for "match," as in a couple that has been set up.
  • shiddukhim

    Hebrew for "matches," as in couples that have been set up.
  • shiva

    Hebrew for "seven," refers to the seven days of mourning following the funeral of a family member.
  • Shloshim

    Hebrew for "thirty," refers to the thirty days of mourning following the funeral of a family member.
  • Shmoneh Esreh

    Hebrew for "The Eighteen," it's an alternate name for Tefilat Amidah, Hebrew for "The Standing Prayer," which is the central prayer of Jewish liturgy. It is recited during every prayer service. Traditionally it's recited individually in silence, then repeated aloud as a congregation; some congregations omit the silent recitation and/or abbreviate the repetition.
  • Shofar

    Simple musical instrument made from a ram's horn that is blown in synagogue on Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur, as well as each morning after daily services during the Hebrew month of Elul (the month leading up to Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur).
  • Shul

    Yiddish for "synagogue."
  • Shulchan Aruch

    Hebrew for "Set Table," also known as the Code of Jewish Law, it is the most authoritative legal code of Judaism, authored by Rabbi Yosef Karo in 1563.
  • Shulkhan Arukh

    Hebrew for "Set Table," also known as the Code of Jewish Law, it is the most authoritative legal code of Judaism, authored by Rabbi Yosef Karo in 1563.
  • shvitz

    Yiddish for "sweat."
  • siddur

    Hebrew for "prayer book," the plural is "siddurim."
  • siddurim

    Plural form of "siddur," Hebrew for "prayer book."
  • siddurs

    Plural form of "siddur," Hebrew for "prayer book."
  • simcha

    Hebrew for "gladness" or "joy," it is often used to refer to a festive occasion or celebration, like a wedding, bat mitzvah, or bris.
  • simchah

    Hebrew for "gladness" or "joy," it is often used to refer to a festive occasion or celebration, like a wedding, bat mitzvah, or bris.
  • simchahs

    Hebrew for "gladness" or "joy," it is often used to refer to a festive occasion or celebration, like a wedding, bat mitzvah, or bris.
  • simchas

    Hebrew for "gladness" or "joy," it is often used to refer to a festive occasion or celebration, like a wedding, bat mitzvah, or bris.
  • simchas bas

    Hebrew for "daughter's celebration," a modern term for a naming ceremony for baby girls.
  • Simchas Torah

    Hebrew for "Joy of Torah," a fall holiday that celebrates the completion of the yearlong Torah cycle and the commencement of a new one.
  • Simchat

    Hebrew for "gladness" or "joy," it is often used to refer to a festive occasion or celebration, like a wedding, bat mitzvah, or bris.
  • simchat bat

    Hebrew for "daughter's celebration," a modern term for a naming ceremony for baby girls.
  • Simchat Torah

    Hebrew for "Joy of Torah," a fall holiday that celebrates the completion of the yearlong Torah cycle and the commencement of a new one.
  • simchos

    Plural form of the Hebrew "simchah," Hebrew for "gladness" or "joy," it is often used to refer to a festive occasion or celebration, like a wedding, bat mitzvah, or bris.
  • simchot

    Plural form of the Hebrew "simchah," Hebrew for "gladness" or "joy," it is often used to refer to a festive occasion or celebration, like a wedding, bat mitzvah, or bris.
  • sisith

    Hebrew for "tassel" or "fringe," the name for specially knotted ritual fringes (strings). They appear on the four corners of a tallit (prayer shawl worn during prayer services) and tallit katan (small shawl, worn by observant Jews every day under their shirts).
  • sivivon

    Hebrew for "spinning top," the four-sided toy played with during the Jewish holiday of Hanukkah is more commonly known by its Yiddish name, "dreidel."
  • Smachos bas

    Plural form of "simchas bas," Hebrew for "daughter's celebration," a modern term for a naming ceremony for baby girls.
  • Smachot bat

    Plural form of "simchat bat," Hebrew for "daughter's celebration," a modern term for a naming ceremony for baby girls.
  • sofer

    Hebrew for "scribe," someone who is trained in writing Torahs and other Jewish religious scrolls and texts.
  • Soofganiyot

    A Hebrew term for a doughnut, often eaten in Israel during Hanukkah. They are usually filled with jelly and covered in sugar.
  • Star of David

    Known in Hebrew as "magen David" (literally," shield of David"), it is more commonly recognized as the star of David, a six-point star. The symbol has origins in the Torah, and has been used as a symbol of Jewish identity and Judaism in Europe since the Middle Ages.
  • succah

    Hebrew for "booth," a temporary hut constructed for use during the week-long Jewish holiday of Sukkot ("booths").
  • Succot

    Hebrew for "Booths," it's a fall holiday marking the harvest, like a Jewish Thanksgiving, complete with opportunities for dining and sleeping under the stars.
  • sufganiyot

    A Hebrew term for a doughnut, often eaten in Israel during Hanukkah. They are usually filled with jelly and covered in sugar.
  • Sufganyot

    A Hebrew term for a doughnut, often eaten in Israel during Hanukkah. They are usually filled with jelly and covered in sugar.
  • sukka

    Hebrew for "booth," a temporary hut constructed for use during the week-long Jewish holiday of Sukkot ("booths").
  • Sukkah

    Hebrew for "booth," a temporary hut constructed for use during the week-long Jewish holiday of Sukkot ("booths").
  • Sukkos

    Hebrew for "Booths," it's a fall holiday marking the harvest, like a Jewish Thanksgiving, complete with opportunities for dining and sleeping under the stars.
  • Sukkot

    Hebrew for "Booths," it's a fall holiday marking the harvest, like a Jewish Thanksgiving, complete with opportunities for dining and sleeping under the stars.
  • synagogue

    Derived from the Greek word for "assembly," a Jewish house of prayer. Synagogue refers to both the room where prayer services are held and the building where it occurs. In Yiddish, "shul." Reform synagogues are often called "temple."
  • t’shuva

    Hebrew for "return," the way of repenting for sins in Judaism. The term is most associated with Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur.
  • T’shuvah

    Hebrew for "return," the way of repenting for sins in Judaism. The term is most associated with Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur.
  • Taglit-Birthright Israel

    An international program that sends thousands of young Jews to Israel each year for free.
  • Talleisim

    Plural form of "tallis," Yiddish for "prayer shawl," a ritual item that is worn and has knotted fringes (tzitzit) attached to the four corners.
  • Tallis

    Yiddish for "prayer shawl," a ritual item that is worn and has knotted fringes (tzitzit) attached to the four corners.
  • Tallit

    Hebrew for "prayer shawl," a ritual item that is worn and has knotted fringes (tzitzit) attached to the four corners.
  • Tallitot

    Plural form of "tallit," Hebrew for "prayer shawl," a ritual item that is worn and has knotted fringes (tzitzit) attached to the four corners.
  • Talmud

    Hebrew for "instruction" or "learning," a central text of Judaism, recording the rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, philosophy, customs and history. It has two parts: Mishnah (redacted c. 200 CE) and Gemara (c. 500 CE), an elucidation of the Mishnah.
  • Tanakh

    Hebrew acronym standing for "Torah (Five Books of Moses), Nevi'im (Prophets), Ketuvim (Writings)," a name used in Judaism for the canon of the Hebrew Bible.
  • Tashlich

    Hebrew for "send off" or "cast away." On the afternoon of Rosh Hashanah it is customary to go to a body of moving water for a ceremony in which we cast off our sins by emptying crumbs from our pockets into the water. (See Micah 7:19.)
  • Teffillah

    Hebrew for "prayer."
  • Teffillot

    Hebrew for "prayers."
  • Tefillah

    Hebrew for "prayer."
  • Tefillin

    Hebrew term derived from the word "to pray," and translated into English as the unhelpful word "phylacteries." A set of small black leather boxes containing scrolls on which the Torah verses are written, one goes on the upper arm (with the black leather straps wrapping down the arm and around the hand and fingers) and the other goes around the head (with the straps dropping down the back of the head).
  • Tefillos

    Hebrew and Yiddish for "prayers."
  • Tefillot

    Hebrew for "prayers."
  • temple

    Reform synagogues are often called "temple." "The Temple" refers to either the First Temple, built by King Solomon in 957 BCE in Jerusalem, or the Second Temple, which replaced the First Temple and stood on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem from 516 BCE to 70 CE.
  • teshuva

    Hebrew for "return," the way of repenting for sins in Judaism. The term is most associated with Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur.
  • teshuvah

    Hebrew for "return," the way of repenting for sins in Judaism. The term is most associated with Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur.
  • The Rabbis

    The teachers and formulators of Jewish practices and wisdom who lived in the first centuries of the Common Era.
  • Tikkun olam

    Hebrew for "repairing the world," a goal of the Jewish covenant with God.
  • Tisha B’Av

    Summer holiday that includes a fast, commemorating the destruction of the ancient Temples in Jerusalem.
  • Torah

    The first five books of the Hebrew Bible (Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy), or the scroll that contains them.
  • Torah portion

    One of 54 sections of the Torah read, during Shabbat services, in order on a weekly basis throughout the year.
  • trayf

    Yiddish term for that which is not kosher (in accordance with Jewish dietary law). Common treyf foods include shellfish and pig products (ham, bacon, etc.). Also, food or meals that combine dairy and meat products are treyf.
  • treif

    Hebrew term for that which is not kosher (in accordance with Jewish dietary law). Common treif foods include shellfish and pig products (ham, bacon, etc.). Also, food or meals that combine dairy and meat products are treif.
  • treyf

    Yiddish term for that which is not kosher (in accordance with Jewish dietary law). Common treyf foods include shellfish and pig products (ham, bacon, etc.). Also, food or meals that combine dairy and meat products are treyf.
  • Tu B’Shevat

    Hebrew for "15th of [the month of] Shevat," both a date and the name of a holiday celebrated on that date. A holiday that falls in January or February, it's the New Year for trees.
  • Tu B’Shvat

    Hebrew for "15th of [the month of] Shevat," both a date and the name of a holiday celebrated on that date. A holiday that falls in January or February, it's the New Year for trees.
  • Tu Beshvat

    Hebrew for "15th of [the month of] Shevat," both a date and the name of a holiday celebrated on that date. A holiday that falls in January or February, it's the New Year for trees.
  • Tu Bishvat

    Hebrew for "15th of [the month of] Shevat," both a date and the name of a holiday celebrated on that date. A holiday that falls in January or February, it's the New Year for trees.
  • tzedaka

    Hebrew for "righteousness," it usually means "charity" or "righteous giving." In Judaism, it refers to the religious obligation to do what is right and just, including giving to those in need.
  • Tzedakah

    Hebrew for "righteousness," it usually means "charity" or "righteous giving." In Judaism, it refers to the religious obligation to do what is right and just, including giving to those in need.
  • tzit tzit

    Hebrew for "tassel" or "fringe," the name for specially knotted ritual fringes (strings). They appear on the four corners of a tallit (prayer shawl worn during prayer services) and tallit katan (small shawl, worn by observant Jews every day under their shirts).
  • tzitzis

    Hebrew for "tassel" or "fringe," the name for specially knotted ritual fringes (strings). They appear on the four corners of a tallit (prayer shawl worn during prayer services) and tallit katan (small shawl, worn by observant Jews every day under their shirts).
  • Tzitzit

    Hebrew for "tassel" or "fringe," the name for specially knotted ritual fringes (strings). They appear on the four corners of a tallit (prayer shawl worn during prayer services) and tallit katan (small shawl, worn by observant Jews every day under their shirts).
  • ulpan

    Hebrew term for a school or institute for the intensive study of Hebrew. Primarily found in Israel, "ulpan method" Hebrew classes are found around the world.
  • USY

    United Synagogue Youth, the youth group of Judaism's Conservative movement in the United States, Canada and Mexico. It offers local and regional youth groups, summer programs and post-high school programs.
  • yahrtzeit

    Hebrew for "time of [one] year," referring to the anniversary of the day of a relative's death.
  • Yahrzeit

    Hebrew for "time of [one] year," referring to the anniversary of the day of a relative's death.
  • Yamulka

    Yiddish for "skullcap," also known in Hebrew as a "kippah," the small, circular headcovering worn by male Jews in most synagogues, and female Jews in more liberal congregations. Traditional Jews were kippot (plural of kippah) all the time.
  • Yarmulka

    Yiddish for "skullcap," also known in Hebrew as a "kippah," the small, circular headcovering worn by male Jews in most synagogues, and female Jews in more liberal congregations. Traditional Jews were kippot (plural of kippah) all the time.
  • Yarmulke

    Yiddish for "skullcap," also known in Hebrew as a "kippah," the small, circular headcovering worn by male Jews in most synagogues, and female Jews in more liberal congregations. Traditional Jews were kippot (plural of kippah) all the time.
  • yartzeit

    Hebrew for "time of [one] year," referring to the anniversary of the day of a relative's death.
  • yeshiva

    Hebrew, literally, for "sitting," refers to a Jewish educational institution that focuses on the study of traditional religious texts (including Torah and Talmud study). A yeshiva can be a day school for elementary or high school students, or a place of study for adults. Traditionally, a yeshiva was attended by boys/men only; more recently, yeshivas have opened for girls/women and even co-ed yeshivas now exist.
  • yeshivah

    Hebrew, literally, for "sitting," refers to a Jewish educational institution that focuses on the study of traditional religious texts (including Torah and Talmud study). A yeshiva can be a day school for elementary or high school students, or a place of study for adults. Traditionally, a yeshiva was attended by boys/men only; more recently, yeshivas have opened for girls/women and even co-ed yeshivas now exist.
  • Yeshivahs

    Hebrew, literally, for "sitting," refers to a Jewish educational institution that focuses on the study of traditional religious texts (including Torah and Talmud study). A yeshiva can be a day school for elementary or high school students, or a place of study for adults. Traditionally, a yeshiva was attended by boys/men only; more recently, yeshivas have opened for girls/women and even co-ed yeshivas now exist.
  • yeshivas

    Hebrew, literally, for "sitting," refers to a Jewish educational institution that focuses on the study of traditional religious texts (including Torah and Talmud study). A yeshiva can be a day school for elementary or high school students, or a place of study for adults. Traditionally, a yeshiva was attended by boys/men only; more recently, yeshivas have opened for girls/women and even co-ed yeshivas now exist.
  • yeshivos

    Plural form of "yeshiva," Hebrew, literally, for "sitting." Refers to a Jewish educational institution that focuses on the study of traditional religious texts (including Torah and Talmud study). A yeshiva can be a day school for elementary or high school students, or a place of study for adults. Traditionally, a yeshiva was attended by boys/men only; more recently, yeshivas have opened for girls/women and even co-ed yeshivas now exist.
  • yeshivot

    Plural form of "yeshiva," Hebrew, literally, for "sitting." Refers to a Jewish educational institution that focuses on the study of traditional religious texts (including Torah and Talmud study). A yeshiva can be a day school for elementary or high school students, or a place of study for adults. Traditionally, a yeshiva was attended by boys/men only; more recently, yeshivas have opened for girls/women and even co-ed yeshivas now exist.
  • Yiddish

    A language, literally meaning "Jewish," once widely used by Ashkenazi communities. It is influenced by German, Hebrew and Slavic languages, and is written with the Hebrew alphabet. It is comparable to the language of many Sephardi communities, Ladino.
  • Yizkor

    Hebrew for "remembrance," a memorial prayer service.
  • Yom Kippur

    Hebrew for "Day of Atonement," the final of ten Days of Awe that begin with Rosh Hashanah. Occurs during the fall and is marked by a 24-hour fast. One of the most important Jewish holidays.
  • yontef

    Yiddish for "holiday."
  • yontev

    Yiddish for "holiday."
  • Yontif

    Yiddish for "holiday."
  • yortsayt

    Yiddish for "time of [one] year," referring to the anniversary of the day of a relative's death.
  • z”l

    Abbreviation for the Hebrew "zichrono libracha" or "zichrona livracha" meaning "may his/her memory be a blessing." It is common, when mentioning in writing the name of someone who has died, to add z"l after the person's name. The full phrase is said when speaking.
  • Zaida

    Yiddish for "grandfather."
  • zayde

    Yiddish for "grandfather."
  • Zion

    Hebrew term, synonymous with Jerusalem.
  • zionism

    A form of nationalism of Jews and Jewish culture that supports a Jewish nation state in territory defined as the Land of Israel.
  • zionist

    A supporter of the ideal that Israel be defined as a Jewish nation state.